Article Data

  • Views 1532
  • Dowloads 266

Original Research

Open Access

Prevalence and factors associated with male postnatal depression in China

  • Ying Cui1
  • Yanhua Deng1
  • Borong Zhou1
  • Yingchun Zeng2
  • Andy SK Cheng2

1Department of Psychiatry, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, P. R. China

2Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, P. R. China

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v17i1.324 Vol.17,Issue 1,January 2021 pp.22-27

Published: 08 January 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Borong Zhou E-mail: yingczeng@polyu.edu.hk
*Corresponding Author(s): Yingchun Zeng E-mail: chloezengyc@hotmail.co.uk

PDF (103.07 kB)

Abstract

Background and Objective: Male postnatal depression has recently begun to attract more research attention. However, it often remains unrecognized despite affecting not only the health of the child but also the spousal relationship and family welfare. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of male postnatal depressive symptoms in Guangzhou, South China. It also explored sociodemographic factors and psychological variables as predictors of postnatal depression symptoms. Materials and methods: Chinese men whose children had been born within the last six months were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for depressive symptoms, the Vulnerable Personality Style Questionnaire for personality, and the Social Support Rating Scale for social support. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were descriptively analyzed and logistic regression was also employed to analyze the predictive impact of factors associated with depression. Results: A total of 212 new Chinese fathers participated in the study. The prevalence of postnatal depression was 24.1% assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale cutoff score of 10. Depressive symptoms were found to be significantly associated with employment status and vulnerable personality traits. Higher family income, wanted pregnancy, having a child of the desired gender, more family support and objective support (OR = 0.598, 95% CI = 0.312-0.896) were all protective factors for depressive symptoms among new Chinese fathers. Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a need to routinely screen for postnatal depressive symptoms in men. Early identification and timely referral to healthcare professionals may prevent postnatal depression and improve the mental health of new fathers. It is important for healthcare providers to develop and evaluate information resources in print and online so as to establish how best to identify and manage paternal postnatal mental health needs. This study also suggests that new fathers need to be provided with targeted resources concerning postnatal mental health and informed as to how to access them and who can be approached for professional support.

Keywords

Postnatal depression; New fathers; Cross-section study; China

Cite and Share

Ying Cui,Yanhua Deng,Borong Zhou,Yingchun Zeng,Andy SK Cheng. Prevalence and factors associated with male postnatal depression in China. Journal of Men's Health. 2021. 17(1);22-27.

References

[1] Suto M, Isogai E, Mizutani F, Kakee N, Misago C, Takehara K. Prevalence and factors associated with postpartum depression in fathers: a regional, longitudinal study in Japan. Research in Nursing & Health. 2016; 39: 253-262.

[2] Carlberg M, Edhborg M, Lindberg L. Paternal postnatal depression assessed by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Gotland male depression scale: prevalence and possible risk factors. American Journal of Men’s Health. 2018; 12: 720-729.

[3] Ayinde O, Lasebikan VO. Factors associated with paternal postnatal depression in fathers of new-borns in Nigeria. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2019; 40: 57-65.

[4] Bao W, Cheng H, Ouyang X, Hu S, Wang M, Chen D. The prevalence of spouse postnatal depression and associated factors in China. Journal of Nursing. 2019; 26: 73-76. (In Chinese)

[5] Philpott LF, Savage E, Leahy-Warren P, FitzGeral S. Paternal perinatal depression: a narrative re-view. International Journal of Mens Social and Community Health. 2020; 3: e1-e15.

[6] Mäki P, Veijola J, Rantakallio P, Jokelainen J, Jones PB, Isohanni M. Schizophrenia in the off-spring of antenatally depressed mothers - a 31 year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Schizophrenia Research. 2004; 66: 79-81.

[7] Darwin Z, Galdas P, Hinchliff S, Littlewood E, McMillan D, McGowan L, et al. Fathers’ views and experiences of their own mental health during pregnancy and the first postnatal year: a qualitative interview study of men participating in the UK Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) cohort. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017; 17: 45.

[8] Fisher SD, Garfield C. Opportunities to detect and manage postnatal depression in men. American Family Physician. 2016; 93: 824-825.

[9] Paulson JF, Bazemore SD. Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2010; 303: 1961-1969.

[10] Underwood L, Waldie KE, Peterson E, D’Souza S, Verbiest M, McDaid F, et al. Paternal depression symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth among participants in the growing up in New Zealand study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017; 74: 360-369.

[11] Massoudi P, Hwang CP, Wickberg B. Fathers’ depressive symptoms in the postnatal period: prevalence and correlates in a population-based Swedish study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2016; 44: 688-694.

[12] Madsen SA. Men and postnatal depression. Trends in Urology & Men’s Health. 2019. Available at: https://trendsinmenshealth.com/

[13] Nonacs R. Postnatal depression in fathers: who is at greatest risk?2017. Available at: https://womensmentalhealth.org/posts/postnatal-depression-fathers-greatest-risk/ (Accessed: 10 September 2020).

[14] Giallo R, D’Esposito F, Cooklin A, Mensah F, Lucas N, Wade C, et al. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fathers’ mental health in the postnatal period: results from a population-based study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2013; 48: 563-573.

[15] Bielawska‐Batorowicz E, Kossakowska‐Petrycka K. Depressive mood in men after the birth of their offspring in relation to a partner’s depression, social support, fathers’ personality and prenatal expectations. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2006; 24: 21-29.

[16] Kamalifard M, Hasanpoor S, Babapour Kheiroddin J, Panahi S, Bayati Payan S. Relationship between fathers’ depression and perceived social support and stress in postpartum period. Journal of Caring Sciences. 2014; 3: 57-66.

[17] Cameron EE, Sedov ID, Tomfohr-Madsen LM. Prevalence of paternal depression in pregnancy and the postpartum: an updated meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 206: 189-203.

[18] Kish L. Survey sampling. New York (NY): John Willey & Sons. 1965.

[19] Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1987; 150: 782-786.

[20] Edmondson OJ, Psychogiou L, Vlachos H, Netsi E, Ramchandani PG. Depression in fathers in the postnatal period: assessment of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale as a screening measure. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2010; 125: 365-368.

[21] Li F. Study on postpartum depression and influencing factors of high-risk pregnant women and their spouses in a Chinese general hospital. Guangdong Pharmaceutical University Thesis, Guangzhou. 2018. (In Chinese)

[22] Boyce P, Hickey A, Gilchrist J, Talley NJ. The development of a brief personality scale to measure vulnerability to postnatal depression. Archives of Womens Mental Health. 2001; 3: 147-153.

[23] Jin S. The evaluation of the vulnerable personality style questionnaire and the research on the vulnerable personality for the postnatal depression in Chinese postnatal women. Master Thesis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. 2004. (in Chinese)

[24] Dennis CL, Boyce P. Further psychometric testing of a brief personality scale to measure vulnerability to postpartum depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004; 25: 305-311.

[25] Xiao SY. The social support rating scale. Psychological health rating scale manual (pp. 267-275). Beijing: China Psychology Health Publisher. 1994.(in Chinese).

[26] World Population Review: Guangzhou population 2020. Available at: https://worldpopulationreview.com/world-cities/guangzhou-population (Accessed: 22 October 2020).

[27] Agarwala A, Arathi RP, Narayanan P. Prevalence and predictors of postpartum depression among mothers in the rural areas of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2019; 7: 342-345.

[28] Nath S, Psychogiou L, Kuyken W, Ford T, Ryan E, Russell G. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among fathers and associated risk factors during the first seven years of their child’s life: findings from the millennium cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 509.

[29] Kamalifard M, Hasanpoor S, Babapour Kheiroddin J, Panahi S, Bayati Payan S. Relationship between fathers’ depression and perceived social support and stress in postpartum period. Journal of Caring Sciences. 2014; 3, 57-66.

[30] Koh YW, Chui CY, Tang CS, Lee AM. The prevalence and risk factors of paternal depression from the antenatal to the postpartum period and the relationships between antenatal and postpartum depression among fathers in Hong Kong. Depression Research and Treatment. 2014; 2014: 1-11.

[31] Wee KY, Skouteris H, Pier C, Richardson B, Milgrom J. Correlates of ante- and postnatal depression in fathers: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders [Internet]. 2011; 130: 358-377.

[32] Anding JE, Röhrle B, Grieshop M, Schücking B, Christiansen H. Couple comorbidity and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers in the first two weeks following delivery. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 190: 300-309.

[33] Faías-Antúnez S, Xavier MO, Santos IS. Effect of maternal postpartum depression on offspring’s growth. Journal of Affect Disord. 2018; 228: 143-152.

[34] Albicker J, Hölzel LP, Bengel J, Domschke K, Kriston L, Schiele MA, et al. Prevalence, symptomatology, risk factors and healthcare services utilization regarding paternal depression in Germany: study protocol of a controlled cross-sectional epidemiological study. BMC Psychiatry. 2019; 19: 289.

[35] Baldwin S, Malone M, Sandall J, Bick D. A qualitative exploratory study of UK first-time fathers’ experiences, mental health and wellbeing needs during their transition to fatherhood. BMJ Open. 2019; 9: e030792.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

    Top