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Original Research

Open Access


  • Kun Ho Lee1,2
  • Sukho Lee3
  • Jinho Park3

1Department of Prescription and Rehabilitation of Exercise, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea

2Department of Icheon Training Center, Korea Paralympic Committee, Icheon, Republic of Korea

3Department of Counseling, Health and Kinesiology, College of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University, San Antonio, TX, USA

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v16i3.278 Vol.16,Issue 3,July 2020 pp.87-97

Published: 16 July 2020

*Corresponding Author(s): Jinho Park E-mail:

PDF (700.62 kB)


Background and objective

While there are many studies done on goalball and judo athletes, our study focuses on comparing and identifying the upper and lower body’s anaerobic power in world-class visually impaired goalball and judo athletes.

Material and methods

The subjects of this study were visually impaired male athletes who had earned a medal in judo (n = 4) and goalball (n = 5). Anaerobic power of the upper and lower body was measured with the Wingate test. We measured the peak power, peak power/body weight, mean power, mean power/body weight, rate of fatigue, and blood lactate concentration.


Goalball athletes showed a significantly lower all-out lactate concentration than judo athletes (2.80 ± 0.33/9.18 ± 1.18, P < 0.05). Goalball athletes showed a significantly lower rate of fatigue than judo athletes in the upper body (58.1 ±1.61, P < 0.05), while judo athletes showed a significantly lower rate of fatigue than goalball athletes in the lower body (60.5 ± 1.04, P < 0.05). Goalball athletes showed a significantly higher upper and lower body ratio in the mean power than judo athletes (0.76 ± 0.01/0.67 ± 0.04, P < 0.05). In the upper and lower body ratio on the rate of fatigue, judo athletes showed high fatigue in the upper body, while goalball athletes showed low fatigue (1.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05).


Visually impaired goalball athletes have higher anaerobic power in the upper body than the lower body whereas visually impaired judo athletes have higher anaerobic power in the lower body than the upper body.


anaerobic power; goalball; judo; Paralympic; visual impairment 

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