Depressive Symptoms in Men Post-Miscarriage
1director of the Psychobiology of Stress and Health Lab at Mount Allison University in Sackville, NB
DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v11i5.12 Vol.11,Issue 5,October 2015 pp.8-13
Published: 05 October 2015
Background: Experiencing a miscarriage can be a traumatic life event for men whose partner has miscarried; for some it might even trigger depression. However, men have received much less attention than women in the literature. In fact, no review of the literature was found to focus on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in men post- miscarriage.
Objective: This paper reviewed the literature on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in men post-miscarriage.
Method: Using relevant keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria (detailed in the method section), we retrieved published empirical studies on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in men post-miscarriage from MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases, as well as from the grey literature (between 1946 and Sept 3, 2014).
Result: The 4 empirical studies retained for this literature review presented the prevalence of depression caseness and the mean or median (where applicable) depression scores. The prevalence of depression caseness, which was greatest within the first month post-miscarriage (5–17%), decreased until 6 months post-miscarriage (7% and 1–4% at 3 and 6 months post-miscarriage, respectively). A slight increase (2–8%) was noted from the 6-month post-miscarriage assessment to the 12- and 13-month post-miscarriage assessments. The mean/median depression scores showed a similar decreasing pattern until 6 months post-miscarriage, but they seemed to remain stable from 6 months to 12 and 13 months post-miscarriage (see Table 1).
Conclusion: This review was limited by the small amount of literature available. Although there was a decrease initially, depressive symptoms might not resolve easily in men post-miscarriage. However, it is challenging to understand whether depressive symptoms were truly related to miscarriage. The findings were discussed in their specific clinical and environmental contexts. In future studies, assessment of depressive symptoms with male-specific scales may yield a higher prevalence of depression in men post-miscarriage.
prostate cancer-clinical, oncology, primary care
Julie Lewis. Depressive Symptoms in Men Post-Miscarriage. Journal of Men's Health. 2015. 11(5);8-13.
1. Mayo Clinic. Diseases and conditions. Miscarriage. Available at: http://www. mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-loss-miscarriage/basics/definition/con-20033827. Accessed June 4, 2014.
2. American Pregnancy Association. Miscarriage. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/miscarriage/. Accessed October 2, 2014.
3. Marcus M, Yasamy MT, Ommeren MV, et al; World Health Organization Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Depression: a global public health concern. Available at: http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/who_paper_depression_wfmh_2012.pdf. Accessed October 2, 2014
4. Akhtar-Danesh N, Landen J. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors. Int J Ment Health Syst 2007;1:1–9.
5. The Mood Disorders Society of Canada, Association of Chairs of Psychiatry in Canada; Canadian Institute for Health Information; Canadian Mental Health Association; Canadian Psychological Association; Canadian Psychiatric Association; Canadian Institute of Health Research, Institute for Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addictions; National Network for Mental Health; Schizophrenia Society of Canada; Statistics Canada; Health Canada. A Report on Mental Illnesses in Canada. Available at: http://www.cpa.ca/cpasite/userfiles/documents/practice_page/reports_mental_illness_e.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2014.
6. National Institute of Mental Health. Depression. Available at: http://www. nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/depression-booklet.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2014.
7. Ogrodniczuk JS, Oliffe JL. Men and depression: commentary. Can Fam Phys 2014;57:153–5.
8. Parker G, Brotchie H. Gender differences in depression. Int Rev Psychiatr 2010;22:426–36.
9. A Train Education. Depression: gender matters. A better instrument for assessing depression. Available at: https://www.atrainceu.com/course-module/1473443- 82_depression-gender-matters-module-6. Accessed June 4, 2014.
10. Addis ME, Mahalik JR. Masculinity, and the contexts of help seeking. Am Psychol 2003;58:5–14.
11. Addis ME. Gender and depression in men. Clin Psychol: Sci Pract 2008;15:153–68.
12. Ajayi WE. Real men don’t cry: examining differences between externalizing depressed men in the symptomatic presentation of depression in psychiatric inpatients [master’s thesis] 2011. Kent State University.
13. American Psychological Association. Men: a different depression. Available at: http://www.apa.org/research/action/men.aspx. Accessed June 4, 2014.
14. Cochran SV. Assessing and treating depression in men. In: Brook GE, Brook GR, eds. The new handbook of psychotherapy and counselling with men: a comprehensive guide to settings, problems, and treatment approaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
15. Magovcevic M, Addis ME. The masculine depression scale: development and psychometric evaluation. Psychol Men Masculin 2008;9:117–32.
16. Martin LA. Challenging depression criteria: an exploration of men’s experiences of depression [dissertation]. 2010. University of Michigan.
17. Martin LA, Neighbors HW, Griffith DM. The experience of symptoms of depression in men vs. women. JAMA Psychiatr 2013;70:1100–6.
18. Rice SM, Fallon BJ, Aucote HM, et al. Development and preliminary validation of the male depression risk scale: furthering the assessment of depression in men. Am J Affect Disord 2014;151:950–8.
19. Patel MX, Doku V, Tennakoon L. Challenges in recruitment of research participants. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2003;9:229–38.
20. Phares V, Fields S, Kamboukos D, et al. Still looking for Poppa. Am Psychol 2014;60:735–6.
21. Sherr L, Dave S, Lucas P, et al. A feasiblity study on recuiting fathers of young children to examine the impact of paternal depression on child development. Child Psychiatr Hum Dev 2006;36:295–309.
22. Weissman MM. Treatment of depression: men and women are different? Am J Psychiatr 2014;171:384–7.
23. Kendler KS, Gardner CO. Sex differences in the pathways to major depression: a study of opposite sex twin pairs. Am J Psychiatr 2014;171:426–35.
24. Cumming GP, Klein S, Bolsover D et al. The emotional burden of miscarriage for women and their partners: Trajectories of anxiety and depression over 13 months. BJOG 2007;114:1138–45.
25. Klier CM, Geller PA, Ritsher JB. Affective disorders in the aftermath of miscarriage: a comprehensive review. Arch Wom Ment Health 2002;5:129–49.
26. Flynn JJ, Hollenstein T, Mackey A. The effect of suppressing and not accepting emotions on depressive symptoms: is suppression different for men and women? Pers Individ Dif 2010;49:582–6.
27. Beutel M, Willner H, Deckard R, et al. Similarities and differences in couples’ grief reactions following a miscarriage: results from a longitudinal study. J Psychosom Res 1996;40:245–53.
28. Swanson KM, Hsien-Tzu C, Graham C, et al. Resolution of depression and grief during the first year after miscarriage: a randomized controlled clinical trial of couples-focused interventions. J Womens Health 2009;18:1245–57.
29. Johnson MP, Baker SR. Implications of coping reportoire as predictors of men’s stress, anxiety and depression following pregnancy, childbirth and miscarriage: a longitudinal study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 2004;25:87–98.
30. Kong G, Chung T, Lai B, et al. Gender comparison of psychological reaction after miscarriage-a 1 year longitudinal study. BJOG 2010;117:1211–9.
31. Crawford JR, Henry JD, Crombie C, et al. Normative data for the HADS from a large non-clinical sample. Br J Clin Psychol 2001;40:429–34.
32. Lok IH, Neugebauer R. Psychological mortality following miscarriage. Best Prac Res Clin Obstet Gynecol 2007;21:229–47.
Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.
Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.