Article Data

  • Views 299
  • Dowloads 150

Case Report

Open Access Special Issue

Elbow plank exercise improves immunocyte function and physical fitness in an elderly male: a case study

  • Ki-Soo Lee1
  • Seung-Jae Heo1
  • Gwang-Seok Hyun1
  • Sang-Kyun Park1
  • Jun-Youl Cha2
  • Yong-Seok Jee3

1Department of Physical Education, Chungnam National University, 34134 Daejeon, Republic of Korea

2Division of Sports & Guard, Howon University, 54057 Gunsan, Republic of Korea

3Department of Leisure and Marine Sports, Hanseo University, 31962 Seosan, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.134

Submitted: 05 September 2021 Accepted: 08 October 2021

Online publish date: 18 October 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Sang-Kyun Park E-mail: ttl0033@gmail.com
*Corresponding Author(s): Yong-Seok Jee E-mail: jeeys4314@gmail.com

PDF (2.75 MB)

Abstract

Background: The elbow plank is a common exercise that can easily be done at home, but its effects on physical fitness and immunocyte function in elderly people are unknown. This prior study was conducted to analyze the changes in health-related physical fitness and immunocytes in an elderly male subject after performing elbow plank exercises.

Methods: The participant was a 61-year-old man who had no experience in performing the elbow plank. Elbow plank exercises were performed for 30 min a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. The intensity of was checked daily with ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). His goal was to reach an RPE between 12 and 14, at which a 1 min rest was given before repeating the process with a progressively higher RPE every 10 min.

Results: Compared with pre-values, (1) health related physical fitness factors increased after 4 weeks. (2) Body weight, skeletal muscle mass, and basal metabolic rate increased, whereas body fat mass and fat percentage decreased. (3) Certain variables of complete blood count showed positive changes, while others did not. Specifically, NK cells (CD56) and cytotoxicity were improved.

Conclusions: This study confirmed that performing elbow plank exercises improved all factors of physical fitness and the immunocyte function in an elderly male. Therefore, 20.73 min (9.27 min of rest) of plank exercise is recommended for elderly men to prevent deterioration of physical fitness and immunocyte function while staying at home, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords

Plank exercise; Immunocyte; Physical fitness; NK cell; Cytotoxicity

Cite and Share

Ki-Soo Lee,Seung-Jae Heo,Gwang-Seok Hyun,Sang-Kyun Park,Jun-Youl Cha,Yong-Seok Jee. Elbow plank exercise improves immunocyte function and physical fitness in an elderly male: a case study. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.134.

References

[1] Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports. 1985; 100: 126–131.

[2] Codella R, Chirico A, Lucidi F, Ferrulli A, La Torre A, Luzi L. The immune-modulatory effects of exercise should be favorably harnessed against COVID-19. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2021; 44: 1119–1122.

[3] Byrne JM, Bishop NS, Caines AM, Crane KA, Feaver AM, Pearcey GEP. Effect of Using a Suspension Training System on Muscle Activation during the Performance of a Front Plank Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014; 28: 3049–3055.

[4] Calatayud J, Casaña J, Martín F, Jakobsen MD, Colado JC, Andersen

LL. Progression of Core Stability Exercises Based on the Extent of Muscle Activity. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2017; 96: 694–699.

[5] Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Carp KC. Electromyographic analysis of core trunk, hip, and thigh muscles during 9 rehabilitation exercises. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2008; 37: 754–762.

[6] Cheng HL. A simple, easy-to-use spreadsheet for automatic scoring of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short Form. 2016. Available at: https://www.researchgate. net/publication/310953872_A_simple_easy-to-

use_spreadsheet_for_automatic_scoring_of_the_ International_Physical_Activity_Questionnaire_ IPAQ_Short_Form (Accessed: 9 October 2021).

[7] Kim K, Eun D, Jee YS. Higher Impulse Electromyostimulation Contributes to Psychological Satisfaction and Physical Development in Healthy Men. Medicina. 2021; 57: 191.

[8] Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1983; 14: 377–381.

[9] Cha JY, Kim JH, Hong J, Choi YT, Kim MH, Cho JH, et al. 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2014; 10: 35–44.

[10] Park S, Park J, Yoo J, Jee Y. Effect of playing soccer on stress, sociality, and physical fitness in alienated youth: a retrospective study. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2020; 16: 154–161.

[11] Jee Y. The efficacy and safety of whole-body electromyostimulation in applying to human body: based from graded exercise test. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2019; 14: 49–57.

[12] Codella R, Adamo M, Maffi P, Piemonti L, Secchi A, Luzi L. Ultra-marathon 100 km in an islet-transplanted runner. Acta Diabetologica. 2019; 54: 703–706.

[13] Jee Y. Exercise is an antigen for vaccination: first series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2020; 15: 339–340.

[14] Jee Y. How much exercise do we need to improve our immune system?: second series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2020; 16: 113–114.

[15] Jee Y. Influences of acute and/or chronic exercise on human immunity: third series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2020; 16: 205–206.

[16] Jee Y. Physical exercise for strengthening innate immunity during COVID-19 pandemic: 4th series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2020; 16: 383–384.

[17] Jee Y. Acquired immunity and moderate physical exercise: 5th series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2021; 17: 2–3.

[18] Jee Y. Cancer and exercise immunity: 6th series of scientific evidence. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 2021; 17: 151–152.

[19] Chase KA, Brigham CE, Peterson Facsm JT, Coste SC. Fitness norms for the plank exercise. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. 2014; 8: 14.

[20] Moro-García MA, Fernández-García B, Echeverría A, Rodríguez-Alonso M, Suárez-García FM, Solano-Jaurrieta JJ, et al. Frequent participation in high volume exercise throughout life is associated with a more differentiated adaptive immune response. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2015; 39: 61–74.

[21] Carlson LA, Tighe SW, Kenefick RW, Dragon J, Westcott NW, Leclair RJ. Changes in transcriptional output of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells following resistance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012; 111: 2919–2929.

[22] Infante JR, Peran F, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Domínguez ML, Garcia L, et al. Levels of immune cells in transcendental meditation practitioners. International Journal of Yoga. 2014; 7: 147–151.

[23] Rajbhoj PH, Shete SU, Verma A, Bhogal RS. Effect of yoga module on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in industrial workers of lonavla: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015; 9: CC01–CC05.

[24] Kim S, Kang M, Kim E, Jung I, Seo E, Oh J. Comparison of EMG activity on abdominal muscles during plank exercise with unilateral and bilateral additional isometric hip adduction. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2017; 30: 9–14.

[25] Cortell-Tormo JM, García-Jaén M, Chulvi-Medrano I, Hernández-Sánchez S, Lucas-Cuevas ÁG, Tortosa-Martínez J. Influence of Scapular Position on the Core Musculature Activation in the Prone Plank Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2018; 31: 2255–2262.

[26] Cugliari G, Boccia G. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2019; 56: 61–71.

[27] Calatayud J, Casaña J, Martín F, Jakobsen MD, Colado JC, Gargallo P, et al. Trunk muscle activity during different variations of the supine plank exercise. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice. 2018; 28: 54–58.

[28] Oliva-Lozano JM, Muyor JM. Core Muscle Activity during Physical Fitness Exercises: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 4306.

[29] Badiuk BWN, Andersen JT, McGill SM. Exercises to activate the deeper abdominal wall muscles: The Lewit A Preliminary Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014; 28: 856–860.

[30] Pirouzi S, Emami F, Taghizadeh S, Ghanbari A. Is Abdominal Muscle Activity Different from Lumbar Muscle Activity during Four-Point Kneeling? Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013; 38: 327–333.

[31] Walton B. Effects of anaesthesia and surgery on immune status. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1979; 51: 37–43.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

    Top