Adult men suicide: a developmental approach
1Centre for Research and Intervention on Suicide, Ethical Issues and End-of-Life Practices, University of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada
2McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4H 1R3, Canada
3Department of Psychology, University of Quebec in Outaouais, Quebec, Gatineau, QC J8X 3X7, Canada
4Research center of the University Institute in Mental Health of Montreal, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H1Z 3T5, Canada
Submitted: 02 June 2021 Accepted: 02 September 2021
Online publish date: 24 September 2021
Background and objective: This study aims to verify the role of humiliating events and their context in provoking suicide and the contribution of childhood parental maltreatment.
Materials and methods: A family member of consecutive adult male suicides, aged between 18 and 53, was recruited at the Montreal coroner's mortuary for a psychosocial autopsy interview (N = 63) and 7 others through the coroner-in-chief's office. Live events were assessed with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) and parental maltreatment with the Child Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview.
Results: Two thirds of the suicides presented most of the following factors: a separation from a partner, half of them involving the man's intractable behavior, financial and marital difficulties, a diagnosis of substance use and/or personality disorder, a history of parental maltreatment and impulsivity. However, other subgroups of men suicide differed significantly from this portrait. Conclusions: Humiliation events and parental maltreatment are key factors of men's suicide.
Suicide; Life events; Parental maltreatment; Substance abuse; Adult men
Michel Tousignant,Monique Séguin,Gustavo Turecki,Nadia Chawky,Claude Vanier,Raymond Morissette,Alain Lesage. Adult men suicide: a developmental approach. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.126.
 Brown GW, Bifulco A, Harris TO. Life events, vulnerability and onset of depression: some refinements. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1987; 150: 30–42.
 Brown GW, Harris TO, Hepworth C. Loss, humiliation and entrap-ment among women developing depression: A patient and non-patient comparison. Psychological Medicine. 1995; 25: 7–21.
 Brown GW, Craig TKJ, Harris TO, Handley RV, Harvey AL. Development of a retrospective interview measure of parental maltreatment using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument—a life-course study of adult chronic depression— 1. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007; 103: 205–215.
 Brown GW, Harris TO. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women. 1st edn. London: Tavistock. 1978.
 Tousignant M, Harris TO. Evénements de vie et psychiatrie: apport des études du “life events and difficulties schedule”. Doin: Paris. 2001.
 Séguin M, Beauchamp G, Robert M, DiMambro M, Turecki G. Developmental model of suicide trajectories. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2014; 205: 120–126.
 Joiner T. Why people die by suicide. Harvard University press: Cambridge, MA. 2005.
 Chu C, Buchman-Schmitt JM, Stanley IH, Hom MA, Tucker RP, Hagan CR, et al. The interpersonal theory of suicide: A systematic review and meta-analysis of a decade of cross-national research. Psychological Bulletin. 2017; 143: 1313–1345.
 Stewart SM, Eaddy M, Horton SE, Hughes J, Kennard B. The validity of the interpersonal theory of suicide in adolescence: A review. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2017; 46: 437–449.
 Duprey EB, Oshri A, Liu S. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent suicide-related behaviors: The internal-izing and externalizing comorbidity hypothesis. Development and Psychopathology. 2020; 32: 945–959.
 Chandler MJ, Lalonde C. Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada’s First Nations. Transcultural Psychiatry. 1998; 35: 191–219.
 Heikkinen M, Aro H, Lönnqvist J. Recent life events and their role in suicide as seen by the spouses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1992; 86: 489–494.
 Graham C, Burvill PW. A study of coroner’s records of suicide in young people, 1986–88 in Western Australia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1992; 26: 30–39.
 Rich CD, Warsradt G, Nemiroff R, Fowler R, Young D. Suicide, stressors and the life cycle. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1991; 148: 524–527.
 Murphy GE, Armstrong JW, Hermele SL, Fischer JR, Clendenin WW. Suicide and alcoholism: interpersonal loss confirmed as a predictor. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1979; 36: 65–69.
 Tousignant M, Pouliot L, Routhier D, Vrakas G, McGirr A, Turecki G. Suicide, Schizophrenia, and Schizoid-Type Psychosis: Role of Life Events and Childhood Factors. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2011; 41: 66–78.
 Laliberté A, Tousignant M. Alcohol and other contextual factors of suicide in four aboriginal communities of Quebec, Canada. Crisis. 2009; 30: 215–221.
 Laliberté, A. An ecological model to better understand suicide amont aboriginals: an exploratory study. University of Quebec in Montreal: Montreal. 2007.
 Seguin M, Renaud J, Lesage A, Robert M, Turecki G. Youth and young adult suicide: A study of life trajectory. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2011; 45: 863–870.
 Zouk H, Tousignant M, Seguin M, Lesage A, Turecki G. Character-ization of impulsivity in suicide completers: clinical, behavioral and psychosocial dimensions. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2006; 92: 195–204.
 Giupponi G, Innamorati M, Baldessarini RJ, De Leo D, de Giovannelli F, Pycha R, et al. Factors associated with suicide: case-control study in South Tyrol. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2018; 80: 150–154.
 Beautrais AL. A case control study of suicide and attempted suicide in older adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2002; 32: 1–9.
 Binette-Charbonneau, A. Les mariages au Québec en 2018. Données socio-démographiques en bref: Quebec. 2019.
 Levesque, P., Pelletier, É. & Perron, P. A. Le suicide au Québec: 1981 à 2016—Mise à jour 2019. Institut national de santé publique du Québec. 2019; 25. (In French)
 Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O. Life events and illness. Guilford Press: New York. 1989.
 Bifulco AT, Brown GW, Harris TO. Childhood loss of parent, lack of adequate parental care and adult depression: a replication. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1987; 12: 115–128.
 Bifulco A, Brown GW, Harris TO. Childhood experience of Care and Abuse (CECA): a retrospective interview measure. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1994; 35: 1419–1435.
 Brown GW, Craig TKJ, Harris TO, Handley RV, Harvey AL. Validity of retrospective measures of early maltreatment and depressive episodes using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) instrument—a life-course study of adult chronic depression—2. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007; 103: 217–224.
 Spitzer RL. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID): II. Multisite test–retest reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1992; 49: 624.
 Williams JBW. The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) Archives of General Psychiatry. 1992; 49: 630.
 McGirr A, Tousignant M, Routhier D, Pouliot L, Chawky N, Mar-golese HC, et al. Risk factors for completed suicide in schizophrenia and other chronic psychotic disorders: a case–control study. Schizophrenia Research. 2006; 84: 132–143.
 Pouliot L, De Leo D. Critical issues in psychological autopsy studies. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2006; 36: 491–510.
 Conner KR, Duberstein PR, Conwell Y. The validity of proxy-based data in suicide research: a study of patients 50 years of age and older who attempted suicide. psychiatric diagnoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2001; 104: 204–209.
 Schneider B, Maurer K, Sargk D, Heiskel H, Weber B, Frölich L, et al. Concordance of DSM-IV Axis I and II diagnoses by personal and informant’s interview. Psychiatry Research. 2004; 127: 121–136.
 Brown GW, Harris TO, Craig TKJ. Exploration of the influence of insecure attachment and parental maltreatment on the incidence and course of adult clinical depression. Psychological Medicine. 2019; 49: 1025–1032.
 Meyer CL, Irani T, Hermes KA, Yung B. Explaining suicide: patterns, motivations, and what notes reveal. Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego. 2017.
 Brown GW, Harris, TO. Life Events and Illness. Guilford Press: New York. 1989.
 Hendin H, Maltsberger JT, Haas AP, Szanto K, Rabinowicz H. Desperation and other affective states in suicidal patients. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2004; 34: 386–394.
 Séguin M, Renaud J, Lesage A, Robert M, Turecki G. Youth and young adult suicide: A study of life trajectory. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2011; 45: 863–870.
 Tucker RP, Michaels MS, Rogers ML, Wingate LR, Joiner TE. Construct validity of a proposed new diagnostic entity: Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance (ASAD). Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 189: 365–378.
 Houle J, Mishara BL, Chagnon F. An empirical test of a mediation model of the impact of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior in men. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008; 107: 37–43.
 Cleary A. The gendered landscape of suicide: Masculinities, emotions, and culture. Springer: New York. 2019.
 Case A, Deaton A. Deaths of despair and the future of capitalism. Princeton University Press: Princeton. 2020.
 Tousignant M, Garneau G, Carbonell E, Grandazzi G, Morin N. Series of suicide involving adolescents and youth: Culture and intergenerational transmission. Perspectives Psy. 2020; 59: 156–163.
 Stoltenborgh M, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Alink LRA, van IJzen-doorn MH. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses. Child Abuse Review. 2015; 24: 37–50.
 Finkelhor D, Vanderminden J, Turner H, Hamby S, Shattuck A. Child maltreatment rates assessed in a national household survey of caregivers and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2014; 38: 1421–1435.
 Hafstad GS, Sætren S, Myhre MC, Bergerud-Wichstrøm M, Augusti EM. The epidemiology of child maltreatment and its association with mental and somatic health in Norwegian teenagers — a national survey among 9240 12-16-year olds. European Journal of Public Health. 2020; 30.
 Bifulco A, Moran PM, Ball C, Bernazzani O. Adult attachment style. I: its relationship to clinical depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2002; 37: 50–59.
 Brown GW, Craig TKJ, Harris TO. Parental maltreatment and proximal risk factors using the Childhood Experience of Care & Abuse (CECA) instrument: a life-course study of adult chronic depression — 5. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2008; 110: 222–233.
 Dagenais D. Le suicide des jeunes: une pathologie du devenir adulte contemporain. Recherches Sociographiques. 2011; 52: 71–104.
 Lafleur G. Risk factors and mental health and suicidal behavior protection of Quebec and French Swiss farmers: A study using mixted methods. University of Quebec in Montreal: Montreal. 2021.
Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.
Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.