Psychological stress, job satisfaction, and career decisions of taxi drivers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of male senior taxi drivers
1Endicott College, Woosong University, 34514 Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Submitted: 05 August 2021 Accepted: 08 September 2021
Online publish date: 18 September 2021
Background and objective: The purpose of this study aims to understand and explore the relationships of stress, job satisfaction, and the career decisions of taxi drivers in South Korea, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Based on the self-efficacy approach and social cognitive career and motivation theory, this study was guided by two research questions, as follows: (1) What are the stress factors for senior taxi drivers? How do senior taxi drivers describe the relationship between stress and job satisfaction, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea? Does age play a role? (2) Did senior taxi drivers leave or retire from the taxi driving profession due to stress and job satisfaction during or after the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea? Why? Does age play a role?
Materials and methods: The purposive and snowball sampling strategies were employed to recruit 62 male senior taxi drivers all across South Korea. The in-depth, semi-structured, and private interview session was employed.
Results: The results indicated that the surrounding environment and individuals, personal considerations with health and body condition, and financial consideration with insufficient pension from the government policy were three key elements for motivations and career decisions.
Contributions and conclusion: Government leaders and policymakers should take the results from this study as a blueprint to reform and polish human resources planning and working rights for senior citizens who continue to work in the professions. Although the government has encouraged senior citizens to be part of the workforce until the age of 65, many senior citizens in late adulthood still suffer from negative workplace conditions and stress. Immediate solutions are needed as senior citizens deserve a manageable retirement.
Career decision; Motivation; Occupational health; Self-efficacy; Social cognitive career and motivation theory; Stress; Taxi driver
Luis M. Dos Santos. Psychological stress, job satisfaction, and career decisions of taxi drivers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of male senior taxi drivers. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.125.
 O’Neill A. Fertility Rate in South Korea. 2021. Available at: https: //www.statista.com/statistics/939360/fertility-rate-in-south-korea (Accessed: 1 July 2021).
 Ji Y, Eun L. South Korea to raise retirement age revision as official agenda next year. 2021. Available at: https://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?year=2021&no=363416 (Accessed: 1 July 2021).
 Choi E. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP). Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 2016; 28: 308–324.
 Park C, Shin K, Kikkawa A. Aging, automation, and productivity in Korea. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2021; 59: 101109.
 Lee M. 37 pct of private taxi drivers are over 65 years Old: Oldest is 93. 2019. Available at: http://koreabizwire.com/37-pct-of-private-taxi-drivers-are-over-65-years-old-oldest-is-93/139841 (Accessed: 1 July 2021).
 Schwer K, Mejza M, Grun-Rehomme M. Workplace violence and stress: The case of taxi drivers. Transportation Journal. 2015; 49: 5–23.
 Seol D, Skrentny JD. Ethnic return migration and hierarchical nationhood. Ethnicities. 2009; 9: 147–174.
 Seol KO, Yoo HC, Lee RM, Park JE, Kyeong Y. Racial and ethnic socialisation as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2016; 63: 294–306.
 Chung Y, Choi K, Park J, Litman T. Social exclusion and transportation services: a case study of unskilled migrant workers in South Korea. Habitat International. 2014; 44: 482–490.
 Lee M, Lee S, Phee Y. Assessment of workplace violence among taxi drivers. Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2021; 31: 31–37.
 Lee B. The Effects of Customer Contact Service to the Mental Health among Korean Taxi Drivers. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing. 2016; 25: 108–117.
 Kim Y. Study of prostatic disease and symptom between special occupation groups (taxi driver, barber). Korean Journal of Urology. 1998; 39: 1093–1097.
 Kim S, Lee H. Oral Health Belief and Oral Health Behavior of Taxi Driver in Jeollabuk-do. Journal of Dental Hygiene Science. 2015; 15: 542–550.
 Kim O, Kim S, Yun K, Khang Y, Jung-Choi K, Cho H. Patterns and Associated Factors Affecting Current Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation in Male Taxi Drivers of Korea: Differences by Employment Type. Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2010; 1: 33–42.
 Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist. 1982; 37: 122–147.
 Dos Santos LM. Developing bilingualism in nursing students: Learn-ing foreign languages beyond the nursing curriculum. Healthcare. 2021: 9: 326.
 Dos Santos LM. Motivations and career decisions in occupational therapy course: A qualitative inquiry of Asia-Pacific international students in Australia. Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 2021; 12: 825–834.
 Lent RW, Brown SD, Hackett G. Toward a Unifying Social Cognitive Theory of Career and Academic Interest, Choice, and Performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1994; 45: 79–122.
 Lent RW, Brown SD. Social Cognitive Approach to Career Devel-opment: an Overview. the Career Development Quarterly. 1996; 44: 310–321.
 Giorgi A. Phenomenology and psychological research. Duquesne University Press: Pittsburgh. 1985.
 Burrell, G, Morgan G. Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. Heinemann: London. 1979.
 Merriam S. Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementa-tion. Jossey Bass: San Francisco, CA. 2009.
 Saldana J. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage Publications: Los Angeles. 2013.
 Tang K, Dos Santos LM. A brief discussion and application of interpretative phenomenological analysis in the field of health science and public health. International Journal of Learning and Development. 2017; 7: 123–132.
 Lee J, Kim M. The effect of employment transitions on physical health among the elderly in South Korea: a longitudinal analysis of the Korean Retirement and Income Study. Social Science & Medicine. 2017; 181: 122–130.
 Oh K, Oh B, Ryu S. A study for the development of prostate associated urinary tract symptoms in occupational taxi drivers. Korean Journal of Urology. 2004; 45: 125–129.
 Mass AY, Goldfarb DS, Shah O. Taxi cab syndrome: a review of the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers and what we can do to help. Reviews in Urology. 2014; 16: 99–104.
 Malieckal DA, Goldfarb DS. Occupational kidney stones. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 2020; 29: 232–236.
 Jeon B, Kwon S. Health and Long-Term Care Systems for Older People in the Republic of Korea: Policy Challenges and Lessons. Health Systems and Reform. 2017; 3: 214–223.
 Life expectancy at birth, total (years): Korea. 2019. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00. IN?locations=KR (Accessed: 1 July 2021).
 Lee S. Population ageing and retirement security in Korea. In Martinez C, Weyman T, van Dijk J. (eds.) Demographic transition, labour markets and regional resilience (pp.199–215). Basel-Stadt: Springer International Publishing. 2017.
Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.
Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.