Article Data

  • Views 295
  • Dowloads 137

Original Research

Open Access

Effects of six weeks of stable versus unstable multi-dimensional surfaces balance training on passing skills and balance performance in young male basketball players

  • Tolga Fisek1
  • Ani Agopyan2

1Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Istanbul Aydin University, 34295 Istanbul, Turkey

2Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Marmara University, 34815 Istanbul, Turkey

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.073

Submitted: 07 March 2021 Accepted: 12 April 2021

Online publish date: 15 July 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Ani Agopyan E-mail:

PDF (152.91 kB)


Background and objective: Adolescence is a period when balance and coordination decrease as a result of rapid musculoskeletal growth. These changes may affect various sports-specific skills, including balance. This study aimed to examine the changes in balance performance and basketball passing speed in male youth basketball players following six weeks of balance training performed on unstable versus stable surfaces.

Methods: Twenty-five male basketball players, mean age 15.53 ± 0.57 years, participated in balance training on different surfaces (unstable surface (US, n = 13); stable surface (SS, n = 12)) for six weeks (2 days/week; 35 to 50 min/day, incrementally). Their physical characteristics, passing skills (passing accuracy and speed test) and balance performance (Y-Balance Test and The Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test) were measured.

Results: The improvement rates for passing accuracy (effect size (ES) = 0.86, moderate, P < 0.001), lower extremity (ES right = 0.94, moderate, P < 0.001; ES left = 0.88, moderate, P < 0.001) and upper extremity (ES right = 1.01, moderate, P < 0.001; ES left = 0.94, moderate, P < 0.001) balance scores, upper extremity stability test power (ES = 0.89, P ≤ 0.001) and the normalized scores (ES = 1.20, moderate, P < 0.001) of the US group were higher than those of the SS group. Passing speed significantly increased only in the US group (P < 0.028).

Conclusion: A multi-dimensional surface training model improved balance performance and passing accuracy skills compared to a stable surface training model for male basketball players. US balance training may be used as a complementary training model to increase dynamic balance and passing accuracy skills for male basketball players.


Upper limb stability; Lower limb stability; Y-Balance Test; Passing skills; Basketball

Cite and Share

Tolga Fisek,Ani Agopyan. Effects of six weeks of stable versus unstable multi-dimensional surfaces balance training on passing skills and balance performance in young male basketball players. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.073.


[1] Kostopoulos N, Bekris E, Apostolidis N, Kavroulakis E, Kostopoulos P. The effect of a balance and proprioception training program on amateur basketball players’ passing skills. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2012; 12: 316–323.

[2] Melam GR, Alhusaini AA, Perumal V, Buragadda S, Kaur K. Comparison of static and dynamic balance between football and basketball players with chronic ankle instability. Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016; 16: 199–204.

[3] Mahmoud MH. Balance exercises as the basis for developing the level of physical and skill performance in basketball young players. World Journal of Sport Sciences. 2011; 4: 172–178.

[4] Boccolini G, Brazzit A, Bonfanti L, Alberti G. Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players. Sport Sciences for Health. 2013; 9: 37–42.

[5] DiStefano LJ, Clark MA, Padua DA. Evidence supporting balance training in healthy individuals: a systemic review. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 2718–2731.

[6] Ondra L, Nátěsta P, Bizovská L, Kuboňová E, Svoboda Z. Effect of in-season neuromuscular and proprioceptive training on postural stability in male youth basketball players. Acta Gymnica. 2017; 47: 144–149.

[7] Hübscher M, Zech A, Pfeifer K, Hänsel F, Vogt L, Banzer W. Neuromuscular training for sports injury prevention: a systematic review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2010; 42: 413–421.

[8] Eils E, Schröter R, Schröder M, Gerss J, Rosenbaum D. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2010; 42: 2098–2105.

[9] McLeod TCV, Armstrong T, Miller M, Sauers JL. Balance im-provements in female high school basketball players after a 6-week neuromuscular-training program. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2009; 18: 465–481.

[10] Gioftsidou A, Malliou P, Pafis G, Beneka A, Godolias G, Maganaris CN. The effects of soccer training and timing of balance training on balance ability. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2006; 96: 659–664.

[11] Evangelos B, Georgios K, Konstantinos A, Gissis I, Papadopoulos C, Aristomenis S. Proprioception and balance training can improve amateur soccer players’ technical skills. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2012; 12: 81–89.

[12] Sachanidi M, Apostolidis N, Chatzicharistos D, Bolatoglou T. Efficacy of young basketball players: test or observation? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2013; 13: 403–412.

[13] Brown KA, Patel DR, Darmawan D. Participation in sports in relation to adolescent growth and development. Translational Pediatrics. 2017; 6: 150–159.

[14] Meszler B, Váczi M. Effects of short-term in-season plyometric training in adolescent female basketball players. Physiology International. 2019; 106: 168–179.

[15] Sedaghati P. The effect of selective plyometric exercises using an unstable surface on the movement performance of basketball players. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2018; 6: 15–22.

[16] Hammami R, Granacher U, Makhlouf I, Behm DG, Chaouachi A. Sequencing Effects of Balance and Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016; 30: 3278–3289.

[17] Chaouachi M, Granacher U, Makhlouf I, Hammami R, Behm DG, Chaouachi A. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises does not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes. Journal of Sports Science Medicine. 2017; 16: 125–136.

[18] Prieske O, Muehlbauer T, Borde RA, Gube M, Bruhn S, Behm DG, et al. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sports. 2016; 26: 48–56.

[19] Borms D, Cools A. Upper-Extremity Functional Performance Tests: Reference Values for Overhead Athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018; 39: 433–441.

[20] Plisky PJ, Rauh MJ, Kaminski TW, Underwood FB. Star Excursion Balance Test as a Predictor of Lower Extremity Injury in High School Basketball Players. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006; 36: 911–919.

[21] Ryu CH, Park J, Kang M, Oh JH, Kim YK, Kim YI, et al. Differences in lower quarter Y-balance test with player position and ankle injuries in professional baseball players. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 2019; 27: 1–7.

[22] Goldbeck TG, Davies GJ. Test-Retest Reliability of the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test: a Clinical Field Test. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2000; 9: 35–45.

[23] Tucci HT, Martins J, de Carvalho Sposito G, Camarini PMF, de Oliveira AS. Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability test (CKCUES test): a reliability study in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome. BioMed Central Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2014; 15: 1–9.

[24] Westrick RB, Miller JM, Carow SD, Gerber JP. Exploration of the y-balance test for assessment of upper quarter closed kinetic chain performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2012; 7: 139–147.

[25] Plisky PJ, Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Kiesel KB, Underwood FB, Elkins B. The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2009; 4: 92–99.

[26] Bulow A, Anderson JE, Leiter JR, MacDonald PB, Peeler J. The modified star excursion balance and Y-balance test results differ when assessing physically active healthy adolescent females. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2019; 14: 192–203.

[27] Gonell AC, Romero JAP, Soler LM. Relationship between the Y balance test scores and soft tissue injury incidence in a soccer team. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2015; 10: 955–966.

[28] Hopkins DR, Shick J, Plack JJ. Basketball for boys and girls: skills test manual. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 1984.

[29] Lyons M, Al-Nakeeb Y, Nevill A. The impact of moderate and high intensity total body fatigue on passing accuracy in expert and novice basketball players. Journal of Sports Science Medicine. 2006; 5: 215–227.

[30] FIBA. Basketball rules & basketball equipment Switzerland: FIBA Cen-tral Board. 2020. Avaliable at: (Accessed: 11.01.2021).

[31] Ab Razak R, Mea KK, Hussain RNJR, Kassim NAM, Othman N. The effect of hand grip strength and trunk rotation strength on throwing ball velocity. Malaysian Journal of Movement, Health & Exercise. 2018; 7: 89–91.

[32] de Oliveira VM, Pitangui AC, Nascimento VY, da Silva HA, Dos Passos MH, de Araújo RC. Test-retest reliability of the closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test (CKCUEST) in adolescents: reliability of Ckcuest in adolescents. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2017; 12: 125¬–132.

[33] Behringer M, Vom Heede A, Yue Z, Mester J. Effects of resistance training in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2010; 126: e1199–e1210.

[34] Lesinski M, Hortobágyi T, Muehlbauer T, Gollhofer A, Granacher U. Dose-response relationships of balance training in healthy young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2015; 45: 557–576.

[35] Zech A, Hübscher M, Vogt L, Banzer W, Hänsel F, Pfeifer K. Balance training for neuromuscular control and performance enhancement: a systematic review. Journal of Athletic Training. 2010; 45: 392–403.

[36] Joshi N, Mahishale A, Motimath B. Comparative study of 4 weeks of dynamic balance training program in collegiate football players: randomized clinical trial. Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Health Care. 2015; 2: 1446–1454.

[37] Emery CA, Cassidy JD, Klassen TP, Rosychuk RJ, Rowe BH. Effective-ness of a home-based balance-training program in reducing sports-related injuries among healthy adolescents: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2005; 172: 749–754.

[38] Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ. Strength training for young athletes (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2005.

[39] Brachman A, Kamieniarz A, Michalska J, Pawłowski M, Słomka KJ, Juras G. Balance Training Programs in Athletes —a Systematic Review. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2017; 58: 45–64.

[40] Rhea MR. Determining the magnitude of treatment effects in strength training research through the use of the effect size. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2004; 18: 918–920.

[41] Gebel A, Lesinski M, Behm DG, Granacher U. Effects and Dose-Response Relationship of Balance Training on Balance Performance in Youth: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018; 48: 2067–2089.

[42] Yarrow K, Brown P, Krakauer JW. Inside the brain of an elite athlete: the neural processes that support high achievement in sports. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2009; 10: 585–596.

[43] Filipa A, Byrnes R, Paterno MV, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Neuromuscu-lar training improves performance on the star excursion balance test in young female athletes. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2010; 40: 551–558.

[44] Ogwumike OO, Tijani A. Balance performance of professional footballers with long-term lower limb musculoskeletal injury. African Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences. 2011; 3: 23–27.

[45] Atilgan OE. Effects of trampoline training on jump, leg strength, static and dynamic balance of boys. Science of Gymnastics Journal. 2013; 5: 15–25.

[46] Gebel A, Prieske O, Behm DG, Granacher U. Effects of Balance Training on Physical Fitness in Youth and Young Athletes: a Narrative Review. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2020; 42: 35–44.

[47] Taube W, Gruber M, Gollhofer A. Spinal and supraspinal adaptations associated with balance training and their functional relevance. Acta Physiologica. 2008; 193: 101–116.

[48] Heitkamp HC, Horstmann T, Mayer F, Weller J, Dickhuth HH. Gain in strength and muscular balance after balance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001; 22: 285–290.

[49] Cè E, Longo S, Paleari E, Riboli A, Limonta E, Rampichini S, et al. Evidence of balance training-induced improvement in soccer-specific skills in U11 soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sports. 2018; 28: 2443–2456.

[50] Junker D, Stöggl T. The training effects of foam rolling on core strength endurance, balance, muscle performance and range of motion: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2019; 18: 229–238.

[51] Izzo RE, Russo L. Analysis of biomechanical structure and passing techniques in basketball. Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabil-itation Journal. 2011; 3: 41–45.

[52] Lee DR, Kim LJ. Reliability and validity of the closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2015; 27: 1071–1073.

[53] Bompa T, Carrera M. Periodization for strength training and sports (2nd edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2005.

[54] Folland JP, Williams AG. The Adaptations to Strength Training. Sports Medicine. 2007; 37: 145–168.

[55] Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1988; 20: S135–S145.

[56] Inovero JG, Pagaduan JC. Effects of a six-week strength training and upper body plyometrics in male college basketball physical education students. Sport Scientific & Practical Aspects. 2015; 12: 37–42.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time