Article Data

  • Views 477
  • Dowloads 163

Original Research

Open Access Special Issue

Knee extensor/flexor muscle torque and jump performance in male volleyball players: effect of experience and torque-angle-velocity relationships

  • Ajlan SAÇ1

1Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne, Turkey

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.065 Vol.17,Issue 4,September 2021 pp.218-225

Submitted: 07 May 2021 Accepted: 16 June 2021

Published: 30 September 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Ajlan SAÇ E-mail:

PDF (2.02 MB)


Background and objective: There are many studies that have examined the differences in isokinetic strength performance differences in athletes; however, observing these angular velocity-dependent differences on surface maps is a very practical and useful application. The aim of this study was to determine the angular velocity-dependent isokinetic knee extensor/flexor muscle strength and jump performance and to compare the test results and 3D torque-angle-velocity surface maps of amateur and professional volleyball players.

Materials and methods: We included 25 well-trained male volleyball players (14 professionals and 11 amateurs) with a mean age of 21.8 ± 2.6 years (range 18–27 years) in this cross-sectional study. The dominant knee concentric muscle contractions were analyzed at 300, 120, and 60◦/s angular velocities to determine peak torque (PT), total work (TW), mean power (MP), angle of peak torque (APT), and hamstring-to-quadriceps torque ratio (H:Q). Vertical jump performance was assessed using countermovement jump (CMJ) test. These data were processed using a MATLAB algorithm for constructing the 3D torque-angle-velocity surface maps.

Results and conclusions: Significant differences were identified for extensor–flexor PT between PRO and AT at 300 and 120◦/s (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences between groups for MP and APT at 300 and 120◦/s for TW at all velocities. CMJ test results were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). Amateur and professional male volleyball players showed different concentric knee strengths across isokinetic velocities and different eccentric strengths on CMJ test. 3D surface maps can play an important role in the comparative analysis of athletes with different sports backgrounds or in performance analyses when tracking individual development and provide a detailed and understandable perspective in revealing differences. It can also be of help in detection of possible deficits in muscle strength and load range before and after potential injuries.


Isokinetic; Knee; Muscle strength; Volleyball; 3D surface mapping

Cite and Share

Ajlan SAÇ. Knee extensor/flexor muscle torque and jump performance in male volleyball players: effect of experience and torque-angle-velocity relationships. Journal of Men's Health. 2021. 17(4);218-225.


[1] Verdijk LB, van Loon L, Meijer K, Savelberg HHCM. One-repetition maximum strength test represents a valid means to assess leg strength in vivo in humans. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2009; 27: 59–68.

[2] Ly LP, Handelsman DJ. Muscle strength and ageing: methodological aspects of isokinetic dynamometry and androgen administration. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 2002; 29: 37–47.

[3] Stark T, Walker B, Phillips JK, Fejer R, Beck R. Hand-held dynamom-etry correlation with the gold standard isokinetic dynamometry: a systematic review. PM & R. 2011; 3: 472–479.

[4] Taylor JD, Fletcher JP. Correlation between the 8-repetition max-imum test and isokinetic dynamometry in the measurement of muscle strength of the knee extensors: a concurrent validity study. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2013; 29: 335–341.

[5] Harbo T, Brincks J, Andersen H. Maximal isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of major muscle groups related to age, body mass, height, and sex in 178 healthy subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2012; 112: 267–275.

[6] Kannus P. Isokinetic evaluation of muscular performance: implica-tions for muscle testing and rehabilitation. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1994; 15: S11–S18.

[7] Gantois P, Pinto V, Castro KRd, João PV, Dantas P, Cabral BG. Skeletal age and explosive strength in young volleyball players. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano. 2017; 19: 331–342.

[8] Solgård L, Nielsen AB, Møller-Madsen B, Jacobsen BW, Yde J, Jensen J. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1995; 29: 200–204.

[9] Coombs R, Garbutt G. Developments in the use of the ham-string/quadriceps ratio for the assessment of muscle balance. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2002; 1: 56–62.

[10] Schons P, Da Rosa RG, Fischer G, Berriel GP, Fritsch CG, Nakamura FY, et al. The relationship between strength asymmetries and jumping performance in professional volleyball players. Sports Biomechanics. 2019; 18: 515–526.

[11] Scattone-Silva R, Lessi GC, Lobato DFM, Serrão FV. Acceleration time, peak torque and time to peak torque in elite karate athletes. Science & Sports. 2012; 27: e31–e37.

[12] Kim H, Lee J, Ahn S, Park M, Lee D. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: a Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016; 11: e0146234.

[13] Dervišević E, Hadžić V. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength in team sports: Basketball, football and volleyball. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2012; 20: 293–300.

[14] Bittencourt NFN, Amaral GM, Anjos MTSd, D’Alessandro R, Aurélio Silva A, Fonseca ST. Isokinetic muscle evaluation of the knee joint in athletes of the Under-19 and Under-21 Male Brazilian National Volleyball Team. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte. 2005; 11: 331–336.

[15] Pelegrinelli ARM, Dela Bela LF, Silva MF, Rodrigues LCR, Batista JP, Guenka LC, et al. Velocity-specific knee strength between professional and under-17 female volleyball players. The South African Journal of Physiotherapy. 2019; 75: 478.

[16] Ön S, Diker G, Özkamçı H, Zileli R. Comparison of isokinetic leg peak torque, hamstring/quadriceps ratio and strength asymmetry of male volleyball players with similar age and different years of training. Age. 2021; 15: 859–863.

[17] Hadzic V, Sattler T, Markovic G, Veselko M, Dervisevic E. The isokinetic strength profile of quadriceps and hamstrings in elite volleyball players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2010; 18: 31–37.

[18] Teixeira J, Carvalho P, Moreira C, Santos R. Isokinetic assessment of muscle imbalances and bilateral differences between knee extensores and flexores’ strength in basketball, footbal, handball and volleyball athletes. International Journal of Sports Science. 2014; 4: 1–6.

[19] Sattler T, Sekulic D, Hadzic V, Uljevic O, Dervisevic E. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012; 26: 1532–1538.

[20] Martinez DB. Consideration for Power and Capacity in Volleyball Vertical Jump Performance. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2017; 39: 36–48.

[21] Mazuquin B, Bela LD, Pelegrinelli A, Dias J, Carregaro R, Selfe J, et al. Torque-angle-velocity relationships and muscle performance of professional and youth soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016; 37: 992–996.

[22] Frey-Law LA, Laake A, Avin KG, Heitsman J, Marler T, Abdel-Malek K. Knee and elbow 3D strength surfaces: peak torque-angle-velocity relationships. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2012; 28: 726–737.

[23] Schwartz FP, Bottaro M, Celes RS, Brown LE, Nascimento FADO. The influence of velocity overshoot movement artifact on isokinetic knee extension tests. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2010; 9: 140–146.

[24] Bridgeman LA, McGuigan MR, Gill ND, Dulson DK. Relationships between Concentric and Eccentric Strength and Countermovement Jump Performance in Resistance Trained Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2018; 32: 255–260.

[25] Bosco C, Luhtanen P, Komi PV. A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1983; 50: 273–282.

[26] Harrison B, Firth W, Rogers S, Tipple J, Marsden J, Freeman JA, et al. The relationship between isokinetic performance of hip and knee and jump performance in university rugby players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2013; 21: 175–180.

[27] Wilhelm EN, Radaelli R, da Silva BGC, Botton CE, Barbosa R, Bottaro M, et al. Single-joint isometric rate of torque development is not related to counter- movement jump performance in soccer players. Isokinetics and Exercise Science. 2013; 21: 181–186.

[28] Malina RM, Cumming SP, Kontos AP, Eisenmann JC, Ribeiro B, Aroso J. Maturity-associated variation in sport-specific skills of youth soccer players aged 13-15 years. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2005; 23: 515–522.

[29] Brown LE, Weir JP. ASEP Procedures Recommendation I: Accurate Assessment of Muscular Strength and Power. Journal of Exercise Physiology. 2001; 4: 1–21.

[30] Lehnert M, Xaverová Z, De Ste Croix M. Changes in muscle strength in u19 soccer players during an annual training cycle. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2014; 42: 175–185.

[31] Akarçesme C, Aytar SH. The comparison of lower extremity isokinetic strength in volleyball players according to the leagues. World Journal of Education. 2018; 8: 111–117.

[32] Palmer TB, Followay BN, Thompson BJ. Age-related effects on maximal and rapid hamstrings/quadriceps strength capacities and vertical jump power in young and older females. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2017; 29: 1231–1239.

[33] Runnels ED, Bemben DA, Anderson MA, Bemben MG. Influence of age on isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic force production characteristics in men. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2005; 28: 74–84.

[34] Thompson BJ, Ryan ED, Sobolewski EJ, Conchola EC, Cramer JT. Age related differences in maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the leg extensors and flexors in young, middle-aged and old men. Experimental Gerontology. 2013; 48: 277–282.

[35] Hubley CL, Wells RP. A work-energy approach to determine individ-ual joint contributions to vertical jump performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1983; 50: 247–254.

[36] Prilutsky BI, Zatsiorsky VM. Tendon action of two-joint muscles: transfer of mechanical energy between joints during jumping, landing, and running. Journal of Biomechanics. 1994; 27: 25–34.

[37] Sattler T, Sekulic D, Esco MR, Mahmutovic I, Hadzic V. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2015; 18: 613–618.

[38] Magalhães J, Oliveira J, Ascensão A, Soares J. Concentric quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic strength in volleyball and soccer players. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2004; 44: 119–125.

[39] Kabacinski J, Murawa M, Mackala K, Dworak LB. Knee strength ratios in competitive female athletes. PLoS ONE. 2018; 13: e0191077.

[40] Wilk KE, Romaniello WT, Soscia SM, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. The Relationship between Subjective Knee Scores, Isokinetic Testing, and Functional Testing in the ACL-Reconstructed Knee. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 1994; 20: 60–73.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time