Prosocial and antisocial behaviors in Turkish female and male football players
1Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Science, Sinop University, 57010 Sinop, Turkey
2Department of Coaching Education, Yaşar Doğu Faculty of Sport Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55270 Samsun, Turkey
3Department of Recreation, Yaşar Doğu Faculty of Sport Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55270 Samsun, Turkey
4Department of Coaching Education, Faculty of Sport Science, Sinop University, 57010 Sinop, Turkey
Submitted: 25 April 2021 Accepted: 27 May 2021
Online publish date: 28 June 2021
Background and objective: Women have increasingly taken more part in a rather male-dominated sport in recent years: football, so our study's main focus is exploring the acts and behaviors of the female athletes during a football match. The study analyzes the sex-related differences in prosocial and antisocial behaviors between male and female athletes.
Materials and methods: A total of 837 players, recruited from various leagues in Turkey, participated in the study. Participants were active female (n = 432) and male (n = 405) football players. The informed consent form and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale (PABSS) were utilized as data collection tools.
Results: Female football players displayed less prosocial and more antisocial behaviors compared to male football players. Among all the league statuses, both female and male players exhibited the highest prosocial and the lowest antisocial behaviors in the top league status. Additionally, there were statistically signiﬁcant differences concerning the age variable (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Our study ﬁndings indicate that male football players engaged in more prosocial behaviors toward both their teammates and opponents than female football players; moreover, male players engaged in less antisocial behaviors in general. Players reported higher prosocial and lower antisocial behavior scores as league status increased. Lastly, higher prosocial behavior scores were obtained with increasing age.
Women's football; Prosocial behavior; Antisocial behavior
Kürşat ACAR,Hakkı MOR,Fatih KARAKAŞ,Ali Kerim YILMAZ,Cansel ARSLANOGLU,Ahmet MOR. Prosocial and antisocial behaviors in Turkish female and male football players. Journal of Men's Health. 2021.doi:10.31083/jomh.2021.062.
 Zouita S, Zouita AB, Kebsi W, Dupont G, Ben Abderrahman A, Ben Salah FZ, et al. Strength Training Reduces Injury Rate in Elite Young Soccer Players during one Season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016; 30: 1295–1307.
 Bellos A. Futebol: The Brazilian way of life. London: Bloomsbury. 2014.
 Reinboth M, Duda JL. Perceived motivational climate, need sat-isfaction and indices of well-being in team sports: a longitudinal perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2006; 7: 269–286.
 Rutten EA, Schuengel C, Dirks E, Stams GJJM, Biesta GJJ, Hoeksma JB. Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behavior in an adolescent sport context. Social Development. 2011; 20: 294–315.
 Kavussanu M, Boardley ID. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport Scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2009; 31: 97–117.
 Danioni F, Barni D. The relations between adolescents’ personal values and prosocial and antisocial behaviours in team sports. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2019; 17: 459–476.
 Kavussanu M, Seal AR, Phillips DR. Observed Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Male Soccer Teams: Age Differences across Adolescence and the Role of Motivational Variables. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2006; 18: 326–344.
 Sage L, Kavussanu M, Duda J. Goal orientations and moral identity as predictors of prosocial and antisocial functioning in male association football players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2006; 24: 455–466.
 Eisenberg N, Fabes RA. Prosocial development. In W. Damon and N. Eisenberg (eds.) Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 701–778). 5th edn. New York: Wiley. 1998.
 Bandura A. Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton Inc. 1971.
 Messner MA. Power at play: sports and the problem of masculinity. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 1992.
 Coakley J, Hallinan C, Jackson SJ, Mewett. Sports in society: Issues and controversies in Australia and New Zealand. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2008.
 Bredemeier BJ, Shields DL. Game Reasoning and Interactional Morality. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 1986; 147: 257–275.
 Conroy DE, Silva JM, Newcomer RR, Walker BW, Johnson MS. Personal and participatory socializers of the perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior in sport. Aggressive Behavior. 2001; 27: 405–418.
 Kavussanu M, Roberts GC. Moral Functioning in Sport: An Achieve-ment Goal Perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2001; 23: 37–54.
 Shields DL, Bredemeier BL, LaVoi NM, Power FC. The sport behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: the good, the bad and the ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education. 2005; 3: 43–59.
 Kavussanu M, Ring C. Moral Thought and Action in Sport and Student Life: a Study of Bracketed Morality. Ethics & Behavior. 2016; 26: 267–276.
 Sagar SS, Boardley ID, Kavussanu M. Fear of failure and student athletes’ interpersonal antisocial behaviour in education and sport. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 2011; 81: 391–408.
 Shields DL, Funk CD, Bredemeier BL. Relationships among moral and contesting variables and prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport. Journal of Moral Education. 2018; 47: 17–33.
 Bruner MW, Boardley ID, Benson AJ, Wilson KS, Root Z, Turnnidge J, et al. Disentangling the Relations between Social Identity and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Competitive Youth Sport. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2018; 47: 1113–1127.
 Rutten EA, Biesta GJJ, Deković M, Stams GJJM, Schuengel C, Verweel P. Using forum theatre in organised youth soccer to positively influence antisocial and prosocial behaviour: a pilot study. Journal of Moral Education. 2010; 39: 65–78.
 Balçıkanlı GS. The Turkish adaptation of the prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport scale (PABSS). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2013; 3: 271–276.
 Coie JD, Dodge KA. Social, emotional, and personality development. In W. Damon, N. Eisenberg (eds.) Handbook of child psychology (pp. 779–862). 5th edn. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. 1998.
 Eisenberg N, Fabes RA, Spinrad TL. Prosocial development. In: Eisenberg N, Damon W, Lerner EM (eds.) Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2006.
 Pitti I. Being women in a male preserve: an ethnography of female football ultras. Journal of Gender Studies. 2019; 28: 318–329.
 Tyler TR, Blader SL. Identity and Cooperative Behavior in Groups. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 2001; 4: 207–226.
 Guivernau M, Duda JL. Moral Atmosphere and Athletic Aggressive Tendencies in Young Soccer Players. Journal of Moral Education. 2002; 31: 67–85.
 Scanlan TK, Simons JP. The construct of sport enjoyment. In: Roberts GC (ed.) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1992; 202–203.
 Tajfel H, Forgas JP. Social categorization: Cognitions, values and groups. In: Stangor (ed.) Key readings in social psychology. Philadel-phia: Essential readings Psychology Press. 2000.
 Benson AJ, Bruner MW, Eys M. A social identity approach to understanding the conditions associated with antisocial behaviors among teammates in female teams. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 2017; 6: 129–142.
 Veenstra R, Lindenberg S, Oldehinkel AJ, De Winter AF, Ormel J. Temperament, environment, and antisocial behavior in a population sample of preadolescent boys and girls. International Journal of Behavioral Development. 2006; 30: 422–432.
 Bruner MW, Boardley ID, Côté J. Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2014; 15: 56–64.
 Kavussanu M, Stanger N, Boardley ID. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2013; 31: 1208–1221.
 Endresen M, Olweus DA. Participation in power sports and antisocial involvement in preadolescent and adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 2005; 46: 468–478.
 Parise M, Pagani AF, Cremascoli V, Iafrate R. Rugby, self-efficacy and prosocial behavior: evidence from the Italian “rugby project for schools”. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicologìa del Ejercicioy el Deporte. 2015; 10: 57–61.
Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.
Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.