Dominant and non-dominant arm bone mineral density of racquet athletes
1University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Sports Science, Samsun, Turkey
2University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey
3University of Hitit, Faculty of Sports Science, Corum, Turkey
DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.003 Vol.17,Issue 2,April 2021 pp.142-147
Published: 08 April 2021
Background and Purpose: The upper extremities, especially the arms and shoulders, are used intensively in racquet sports. In this work, our primary aim is to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) between dominant and non-dominant arms in racquet athletes. We then compare BMDs between athletes playing racquet sports and non-athletes.
Methods: A total of 24 racquet sports male athletes active for at least 10 years (age, 22.46 ± 2.41 years) and 22 non-athletes (age, 21.45 ± 1.74 years) voluntarily participated in this study. The BMDs of the humerus, radius, and ulna of the dominant and non-dominant arms of both groups were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Results: The BMDs of the proximal humerus and humeral shaft of dominant arms were signiﬁcantly higher than those of non-dominant arms in athletes (19.85% vs. 12.02%); while statistically, no statistically signiﬁcant difference in BMDs was found in non-athletes (P > 0.05). The BMDs of the dominant proximal humerus and humeral shaft of athletes were higher than those of non-athletes (P < 0.05). Non-dominant arm BMDs did not differ between the two groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: BMD differences observed between the right and left arms of athletes indicate that, rather than confounding factors like genotype, right-/left-handedness, participation in racquet sports may inﬂuence BMDs in the related extremities.
Athletes; Bone mineral density; DEXA; Dominance
Şaban Ünver,Tülin Atan,Fevziye Canbaz Tosun,İzzet İslamoğlu,Abdurrahim Kaplan. Dominant and non-dominant arm bone mineral density of racquet athletes. Journal of Men's Health. 2021. 17(2);142-147.
 Annie C, Economos CD. Relationship between quantitative ultrasound, anthropometry and sports participation in college aged adults. Osteoporo-sis International. 2004; 15: 799-806.
 Chesnut CH. Bone mass and exercise. American Journal of Medicine. 1993; 95: 34-36.
 NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagno-sis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis, Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001; 285: 785-795.
 Bielemann RM, Martinez-Mesa J, Gigante DP. Physical activity during life course and bone mass: a systematic review of methods and findings from cohort studies with young adults. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2013; 14: 77.
 Baxter-Jones AD, Kontulainen SA, Faulkner RA, Bailey DA. A longitudi-nal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual from adolescence to young adulthood. Bone. 2008; 43: 1101-1107.
 Barnekow-Bergkvist M, Hedberg G, Pettersson U, Lorentzon R. Relation-ships between physical activity and physical capacity in adolescent females and bone mass in adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2006; 16: 447-455.
 Peterson SE, Petersen MD, Raymond G, Gilligan C, Checovich MM, Smith EL. Muscular strength and bone density with weight training in middle-aged women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1991; 23: 499-504.
 Halioua L, Anderson JJ. Lifetime calcium intake and physical activity habits, independent and combined effects on the radial bone of healthy premenopausal Caucasian women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1989; 49: 534-541.
 Valimaki MJ, Karkkainen M, Lamberg C, Laitinen K, Alhava E, Heikkinen J, et al. Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass. Cardiovascular risk in young finns study group. British Medical Journal. 1994; 309: 230-235.
 Guadalupe-Grau A, Fuentes T, Guerra B, Calbet JA. Exercise and bone mass in adults. Sports Medicine. 2009; 39: 439-468.
 Jakse B, Sekulic D, Jakse B, Cuk I, Sajber D. Bone health among indoor female athletes and associated factors: a cross-sectional study. Research in Sports Medicine. 2020; 28: 314-323.
 McClanahan BS, Harmon-Clayton K, Ward KD, Klesges RC, Vukadi-novich CM, Cantler ED. Side-to-side comparisons of bone mineral density in upper and lower limbs of collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2002; 16: 586-590.
 Van Santen JA, Pereira C, Sanchez-Santos, MT, Cooper C, Nigel K, Arden NK. Dominant vs. non-dominant hip comparison in bone mineral density in young sporting athletes. Archives of Osteoporosis. 2019; 14: 54.
 Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ): 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003; 35: 1381-1395.
 Boer P. Estimated lean body mass as an index for normalization of body fluid volumes in man. American Journal of Physiology. 1984; 247: 632-635.
 Haapasalo H, Kontulainen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Jarvinen M, VuoriI. Exercise-induced bone gain ıs due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players. Bone. 2000; 27: 351-357.
 Calbet JA, Moysi JS, Dorado C, Rodriguez LP. Bone mineral content and density in professional tennis players. Calcified Tissue International. 1998; 62: 491-496.
 Ducher G, Bass SL, Saxon L, Daly RM. Effects of repetitive loading on the growth induced changes in bone mass and cortical bone geometry: A 12-month study in pre/peri and post menarcheal tennis players. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2011; 26: 1321-1329.
 Zagatto AM, Milioni F, Freitas IF, Sergio AA, Padulo J. Body composition of table tennis players: comparison between performance level and gender. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2016; 12: 49-54.
 Warden SJ, Weatherholt AM, Gudeman AS, Mitchell DC, Thompson WR, Fuchs RK. Progressive skeletal benefits of physical activity when young as assessed at the midshaft humerus in male baseball players. Osteoporosis International. 2017; 28: 2155-2165.
 Sanchis-Moysi J, Dorado C, Olmedillas H, Serrano-Sanchez JA, Calbet JA. Bone mass in prepubertal tennis players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2010a; 31: 416-420.
 Ducher G, Courteixa D, Mêmeb S, Magnic G, Vialad JF, Benhamoua CL. Bone geometry in response to long-term tennis playing and its relationship with muscle volume: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study in tennis players. Bone. 2005; 37: 457-466.
 Hennig EM, Rosenbaum D, Milani TL. Transfer of tennis racquet vibrations on to the human forearm. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1992; 24: 1134-1140.
 Sanchis-Moysi J, Dorado C, Olmedillas H, Serrano-Sanchez JA, Calbet JA. Bone and lean mass inter-arm asymmetries in young male tennis players depend on training frequency. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010b; 110: 83-90.
 Kontulainen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Vuori I. Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2002; 17: 2281-2289.
 Ahmadi F, Amraei M. Comparison of BMD and BMC in dominant and non-dominant arm between volleyball players and non-athlete. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 2013; 7: 632-635.
 Nordström A, Högström M, Nordström P. Effects of different types of weight-bearing loading on bone mass and size in young males: a longitudinal study. Bone. 2008; 42: 565-571.
 Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I . Dimensions and estimated mechanical characteristics of the humerus after long-term tennis loading. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 1996; 11: 864-872.
 Ermin K, Owens S, Allison FM, Martha B. Bone mineral density of adolescent female tennis players and nontennis players. Journal of Osteoporosis. 2012; 1: 1-5.
 Nagata M, Kitagawa J, Miyake T, Nakahara Y. Effects of exercise practice on the maintenance of radius bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science. 2002; 21: 229-234.
 Tervo T, Nordstrom P, Nordstrom A. Effects of badminton and ice hockey on bone mass in young males: a 12-year follow-up. Bone. 2010; 47: 666-672.
 Kontulainen S, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Pasanen M, Vuori I. Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2003; 18: 352-359.
 Frost HM. Muscle, bone, and the utah paradigm: a 1999 overview. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2000; 32: 911-917.
 Tüzün F, Akarırmak Ü, Dinç A. Egzersizlerin osteoporozdan korunma ve tedavideki yeri. İstanbul. 2002; 174-178. (In Turkish)
Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.
Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.
Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.
SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.
DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.
Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.