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Original Research

Open Access

Changes and differences in functional fitness among older adults over a four year period

  • Seol Jung Kang1
  • Kwang Jun Ko2
  • Jae Ryang Yoon3
  • Cheol Gyu Yoo3
  • SeungTea Park4
  • Gi Chul Ha2

1Department of Physical Education, Changwon National University, Changwon-si, Republic of Korea

2Department of Sports Medicine, National Fitness Center, Seoul-si, Republic of Korea

3Department of Physical Education, Korea National Sport University, Seoul-si, Republic of Korea

4Department of Yoga Studies & Meditation, Wonkwang Digital University, Wongkwang-si, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.002 Vol.17,Issue 2,April 2021 pp.70-76

Published: 08 April 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Gi Chul Ha E-mail: hagc@naver.com

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Abstract

Background and objective: Functional fitness is an important task in the health of the older adults. The present study investigated the changes and differences in functional fitness of young and middle older adults by a 4 years age increase.

Methods: We performed a longitudinal and cross-sectional study of 261 male older adults who were working as school guardians at elementary schools in Seoul, Korea and had their yearly functional fitness for four years from 2014 to 2017. Participants were young-older adults (n = 98), early middle-older adults (n = 100), and late middle-older adults (n = 63). Functional fitness was measurement by muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance test (30-seconds chair stand up), cardiorespiratory endurance test (2-minutes step), flexibility test (sit & reach), agility test (20-seconds side step), and dynamic balance (3-m Up & Go) over a 4 year period.

Results: Our study showed that grip strength (P < 0.001), 30-seconds chair stand (P < 0.001), 2-minutes step (P < 0.001), sit & reach (P < 0.001), 20-seconds side step (P < 0.001) were found to decrease with aging in all groups. By contrast, 3-m Up & Go was found to increase (P < 0.001). For each measurement year, middle-older adults on grip strength (P < 0.001), 30-seconds chair stand (P < 0.001), 2-minutes step (P < 0.001), 20-seconds side step (P < 0.001) were lower, whereas that on 3-m Up & Go (P < 0.001) was higher compared with young-older adults.

Conclusion: The functional fitness of older adults was found to decrease with aging, and that between young-older adults and middle-older adults was found to be different.

Keywords

Aging; Muscle strength; Cardiorespiratory endurance; Flexibility; Agility; Balance

Cite and Share

Seol Jung Kang,Kwang Jun Ko,Jae Ryang Yoon,Cheol Gyu Yoo,SeungTea Park,Gi Chul Ha. Changes and differences in functional fitness among older adults over a four year period. Journal of Men's Health. 2021. 17(2);70-76.

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