Article Data

  • Views 2466
  • Dowloads 178

Original Research

Open Access

ASSOCIATION OF FITNESS, BODY CIRCUMFERENCE, MUSCLE MASS, AND EXERCISE HABITS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

  • Kyu Kwon Cho1
  • Young Hak Kim2
  • Yong Hwan Kim1

1Department of Physical Education, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung-si, Republic of Korea

2Department of Cardiology, Seoul Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea

DOI: 10.22374/jomh.v15i3.152 Vol.15,Issue 3,July 2019 pp.46-55

Published: 02 July 2019

*Corresponding Author(s): Young Hak Kim E-mail: mdyhkim@amc.seoul.kr
*Corresponding Author(s): Yong Hwan Kim E-mail: yhkim@gwnu.ac.kr

PDF (479.25 kB)

Abstract

Background and objective

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be improved by diet, cessation of smoking, and in particular exercise. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of exercise-related factors such as fitness, exercise habits, muscle, and body fat with MetS.

Methods

Data were collected for research purposes from 398 males aged 40–50 years. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body fat percentage were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fitness was evaluated using cardiopulmonary fitness, grip strength, and leg power. Exercise habits included exercise frequency, intensity, and duration. Data were analyzed using the odds ratio (OR), calculated by logistic regression analysis.

Results

There was no significant difference in age between the non-MetS (51.1 years) and the MetS (51.5 years) groups. Differences in dyslipidemia and fitness variables classified as MetS risk factors were significant between groups. The group with the highest cardiopulmonary fitness had an OR of 0.426 (95% confi-dence interval [CI], 0.191–0.948) when compared with the lowest group, while grip strength was not significantly different. Obesity factors such as body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist circum-ference were significantly prevalent. The group with the largest thigh circumference had an OR of 0.299 (95% CI, 0.101–0.881) when compared to the group with the smallest thigh circumference. Calf circumference did not yield significant results. The group with the highest ASM had an OR of 0.346 when compared with the lowest group. Higher exercise frequency and longer duration were associated with a lower prevalence of MetS.

Conclusion

Among physical strength, circumference, muscle mass, and obesity factors, MetS was most affected by obesity factors. Furthermore, higher cardiopulmonary fitness and frequent exercise can be helpful for MetS prevention.

Keywords

exercise behavior; fitness; metabolic syndrome; muscle; obesity

Cite and Share

Kyu Kwon Cho,Young Hak Kim,Yong Hwan Kim. ASSOCIATION OF FITNESS, BODY CIRCUMFERENCE, MUSCLE MASS, AND EXERCISE HABITS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME. Journal of Men's Health. 2019. 15(3);46-55.

References

1. Alberti KGM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—A new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005;366:1059–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67402-8

2. Mottillo S, Filion KB, Genest J, et al. The meta-bolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk: A sys-tematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1113–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/

j. jacc.2010.05.034

3. Malik S, Wong ND, Franklin SS, et al. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coro-nary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation 2004;110:1245–50. https://doi.org/10.1161/01. CIR.0000140677.20606.0E

4. Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH. Modifiable lifestyle factors and the metabolic syn-drome in older men: Effects of lifestyle changes. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1909–14. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00974.x

5. Yamaoka K, Tango T. Effects of lifestyle modifi-cation on metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med 2012;10:138. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-10-138

6. Pouliot M-C, Després J-P, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: Best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:460–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/ 0002-9149(94)90676-9

7. Heitmann BL, Frederiksen P. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death: Prospective cohort study. BMJ 2009;339:b3292. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b3292

8. Ishii S, Tanaka T, Shibasaki K, et al. Development of a simple screening test for sarcopenia in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:93–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12197

9. Atkins J, Whincup P, Morris R, et al. Low muscle mass in older men: The role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr Health Aging 2014;18:26–33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603- 013-0336-9

 10. Lee PH, Macfarlane DJ, Lam T, et al. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF): A systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2011;8:115. https://doi. org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-115

 11. De Bourdeaudhuij I, Maes L, De Henauw S, et al. Evaluation of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents in six European coun-tries: The Activ-O-Meter in the HELENA inter-vention study. J Adolesc Health 2010;46:458–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.10.006

 12. Bassett Jr DR, Wyatt HR, Thompson H, et al. Pedometer-measured physical activity and health behaviors in United States adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:1819. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181dc2e54

 13. Archer E, Blair SN. Physical activity and the pre-vention of cardiovascular disease: From evolu-tion to epidemiology. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2011;53:387–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. pcad.2011.02.006

 14. van Waart H, Stuiver MM, van Harten WH, et al. Effect of low-intensity physical activity and mod-erate-to high-intensity physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy on physical fitness, fatigue, and chemotherapy completion rates: Results of the PACES randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:1918–27. https://doi. org/10.1200/JCO.2014.59.1081

 15. Paoli A, Pacelli QF, Moro T, et al. Effects of high-intensity circuit training, low-intensity cir-cuit training and endurance training on blood pressure and lipoproteins in middle-aged over-weight men. Lipids Health Dis 2013;12:131. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-131

 16. Buchheit M, Laursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Sports Med 2013;43:313–38. https://doi. org/10.1007/s40279-013-0029-x

 17. Stone MH, Collins D, Plisk S, et al. Training princi-ples: Evaluation of modes and methods of resis-tance training. Strength Cond J 2000;22:65. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4295(2000)022<0065: TPEOMA>2.0.CO;2

 18. Johnson KM, Dowe DA. Accuracy of statin assignment using the 2013 AHA/ACC Cholesterol Guideline versus the 2001 NCEP ATP III guide-line: Correlation with atherosclerotic plaque imag-ing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:910–19. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.056

 19. WHO. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of the WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.

 20. Wilson RC, Jones P. A comparison of the visual analogue scale and modified Borg scale for the measurement of dyspnoea during exercise. Clin Sci 1989;76:277–82. https://doi.org/10.1042/cs0760277

 21. ACSM. ACSM's exercise testing and prescription. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2017.

 22. Sasaki JE, Hickey A, Mavilia M, et al. Validation of the Fitbit wireless activity tracker for prediction of energy expenditure. J Phys Act Health 2015;12: 149–54. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2012-0495

 23. Barry VW, Baruth M, Beets MW, et al. Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2014;56:382–90. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.002

 24. García-Hermoso A, Cavero-Redondo I, Ramírez-Vélez R, et al. Muscular strength as a predictor of all-cause mortality in apparently healthy popula-tion: A systematic review and meta-analysis of data from approximately 2 million men and women. Archiv Phys Med Rehabil 2018;99:2100–2113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2018.01.008

 25. Arora NS, Rochester DF. Effect of body weight and muscularity on human diaphragm muscle mass, thickness, and area. J Appl Physiol 1982;52:64–70. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1982.52.1.64

 26. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosisReport of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older PeopleA. Age Ageing 2010;39:412–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034

 27. Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Visser M, et al. Larger thigh and hip circumferences are associated with better glucose tolerance: The Hoorn study. Obesity 2003;11:104–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.18

 28. Ashwell M, Hsieh SD. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:303–7. https://doi. org/10.1080/09637480500195066

 29. Yu O-K, Rhee Y-K, Park T-S, et al. Comparisons of obesity assessments in over-weight elementary students using anthropometry, BIA, CT and DEXA. Nutr Res Pract 2010;4:128–35. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2010.4.2.128

 30. Fogelholm M. Physical activity, fitness and fat-ness: Relations to mortality, morbidity and dis-ease risk factors. A systematic review. Obes Rev 2010;11:202–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X. 2009.00653.x

 31. Sayer AA, Syddall H, Dennison E, et al. Grip strength and the metabolic syndrome: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. QJM 2007;100:707–13. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcm095

 32. Miyatake N, Wada J, Saito T, et al. Comparison of muscle strength between Japanese men with and without metabolic syndrome. Acta Med Okayama 2007;61:89–102.

 33. Lim ECW. Pain free grip strength test. J Physiother 2013;59:59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70152-8

 34. Gale CR, Martyn CN, Cooper C, et al. Grip strength, body composition, and mortality. Int J Epidemiol 2006;36:228–35. https://doi.org/ 10.1093/ije/dyl224

 35. Giampaoli S, Ferrucci L, Cecchi F, et al. Hand-grip strength predicts incident disability in non-dis-abled older men. Age Ageing 1999;28:283–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/28.3.283

 36. Ling CH, Taekema D, de Craen AJ, et al. Handgrip strength and mortality in the oldest old population: The Leiden 85-plus study. Can Med Assoc J 2010;182:429–35. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.091278

 37. Leong DP, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, et al. Prognostic value of grip strength: Findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Lancet 2015;386:266–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62000-6

 38. Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL. Musculoskeletal fit-ness and risk of mortality. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:740–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/0000 5768-200205000-00002

 39. Cooper C, Fielding R, Visser M, et al. Tools in the assessment of sarcopenia. Calcif Tissue Int 2013;93:201–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-013-9757-z

 40. Hida T, Shimokata H, Sakai Y, et al. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic leg as potential risk factors for acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture among older women. Eur Spine J 2016;25:3424–31. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00586-015-3805-5

 41. Roxburgh BH, Nolan PB, Weatherwax RM, et al. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than mod-erate intensity exercise training alone? J Sports Sci Med 2014;13:702.

 42. Little JP, Jung ME, Wright AE, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial gly-cemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metabol 2014;39:835–41. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0512

 43. Manders R, Van Dijk J, Van Loon L. Low-intensity exercise reduces the prevalence of hyper-glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:219–25. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS. 0b013e3181b3b16d

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time

Conferences

    Top