Article Data

  • Views 89
  • Dowloads 5

Original Research

Open Access


  • Wang Xi1
  • Dong Gan2
  • Shao Cuihua3
  • Wang Peitao4

1International Hospital Preparatory Office, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong, China

2Shandong Provincial Third Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Shandong, China

3Department of Obstetrics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong, China

4Department of Andrology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong, China

DOI: 10.15586/jomh.v16i3.255 Vol.16,Issue 3,July 2020 pp.19-28

Published: 16 July 2020

*Corresponding Author(s): Wang Peitao E-mail:

PDF (461.66 kB)



The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of fertility protection among male patients and their healthcare providers in the treatment process of cancer.


In a cross-sectional study, we applied a questionnaire survey among patients and healthcare providers who were selected randomly: the physician group consisted of oncologists and hematologists, and the patient group included participants with cancer from 15 to 45 years old, who were recruited from hos-pitals in Qingdao. Meanwhile, data from male cancer patients, who received sperm cryopreservation in our hospital, were also analyzed.


Data collected from healthcare provider group showed that more than 80% of clinicians warned patients of the fertility impairment along with chemotherapy or other treatments, whereas a few clini-cians recommended specific methods for reproductive protection to patients with special attention be paid to the follow-up fertility result. In patient group, more than 50% indicated they would accept the loss of fertility caused by cancer therapies. The rate of awareness of sperm cryopreservation, as an effective way of reproductive protection, was low among both physician and patient groups. In the past 3 years, only 63 samples of semen from 54 cancer patients were cryopreserved in our hospital. 


The awareness of reproductive protection in both physicians and cancer patients was not satisfied in Qingdao, China, and this finding indicates a need for comprehensive health education and practical protocols for both patients and healthcare providers in terms of reproductive protection for male patients with cancers.


cancer; fertility impairment; reproductive protection; sperm cryopreservation

Cite and Share



1. Tournaye H, Dohle GR, Barratt CLR. Fertility preservation in men with cancer. Lancet 2014;84:1295–301. (14)60495-5

2. Karunakaran P, Malhotra P, Lad D. Fertility management for the hemato-oncologist. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2018; 34(1):13–18. 88-01 

7- 08 87-8

3. Bunge RG, Sherman JK. Fertilizing capacity of frozen human spermatozoa. Nature 1953; 172(4382): 767–8. 17276 7b0

4. Kawai K, Nishiyama H. Preservation of fertility of adult male cancer patients treated with chemo-therapy. Int J Clin Oncol. 2019;24:34–40.

5. Yogev L, Kleiman SE, Shabtai E, et al. Long-term cryostorage of spermin a human sperm bank does not damage progressive motility concentration. Hum Reprod 2010;25(5):1097–103. https://doi. org/10.1093/humrep/deq041

6. Okada K, Fujisawa M. Recovery of spermatogen-esis following cancer treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. World J Mens Health. 2019;37(2):166–174 10.5534/wjmh.180043

7. Mancini J, Rey D, Préau M, et al. Infertility induced by cancer treatment: Inappropriate or no information provided to majority of French survivors of cancer. Fertil Steril 2008;90(5):1616–

25. 064

8. Moody JA, Ahmed K, Yap T, Minhas S, Shabbir

M. Fertility management in testicular cancer: The need to establish a standardized and evidence-based patient-centric pathway. BJU Int 2019;123:160–72.

9. Stern C, Agresta F. Setting up a fertility preserva-tion programme. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019;55:67–78. 10.1016/ j.bpobgyn.2018.07.007

 10. Horne G, Atkinson AD, Pease EH, et al. Live birth with spermcryopreserved for 21 years prior to cancer treatment: Case report. Hum Reprod 2004;19(6):1448–9.

 11. Feldschuh J, Brassel J, Durso N, et al. Successful sperm storage for 28 years. Fertil Steril 2005;84(4):1017. 2005.05.015

 12. Liu F, Zou SS, Zhu Y, et al. A novel micro-straw for cryopreservationof small number of human spermatozoon. Asian J Androl 2016. https://doi. org/10.4103/1008-682X.173452

 13. Rabah DM, Wahdan IH, Merdawy A, et al. Oncologists’ knowledge andpractice towards sperm cryopreservation in Arabic communities. J Cancer Survive 2010;4(3):279–83. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11764-010-0140-z

 14. Shnorhavorian M, Harlan LC, Smith AW, et al. Fertility preservationknowledge, counseling, and actions among adolescent and young adultpa-tients with cancer: A population-based study. Cancer 2015;121(19):3499–506. https://doi. org/10.1002/cncr.29328

 15. Daudin M, Rives N, Walschaerts M, et al. Sperm cryopreservation inadolescents and young adults with cancer: Results of the French national sperm banking network (CECOS). Fertil Steril 2015,103(2):478–86. fertnstert.2014.11.012

 16. Besharati M, Woodruff T, Victorson D. Young adults’ access to fertility preservation services at National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program minority/underserved commu-nity sites: Aqualitative study. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2016;5(2):187–200. https://doi. org/10.1089/jayao.2015.0034

 17. Sheng HQ, Zhang XZ, Hong Y. Analysis of the quality of cryopreserved semen from male cancer patients. Natl J Androl 2015;21(1):44–7.

 18. Chung JP, Haines CJ, Kong GW. Sperm cryopreser-vation for Chinese male cancer patients: A 17-year retrospective analysis in an assisted reproductive unit in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J 2013;19(6): 525–30.

 19. Ping P, Gu BH, Li P, et al. Fertility outcome of patients with testiculartumor: Before and after treatment. Asian J Androl 2014;16(1):107–11.

 20. Traila A, Dima D, Achimas-Cadariu P, Micu R. Fertility preservation in Hodgkin’s lymphomapa-tients that undergo targeted moleculartherapies: An important step forward fromthe chemotherapy era. Cancer Manage Res 2018;10:1517–26.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,200 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Social Sciences Citation Index Social Sciences Citation Index contains over 3,400 journals across 58 social sciences disciplines, as well as selected items from 3,500 of the world’s leading scientific and technical journals. More than 9.37 million records and 122 million cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences Current Contents - Social & Behavioral Sciences provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in the social and behavioral sciences.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

SCOPUS Scopus is Elsevier's abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 Inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences.

DOAJ DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

CrossRef Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. Crossref committed to open scholarly infrastructure and collaboration, this is now announcing a very deliberate path.

Portico Portico is a community-supported preservation archive that safeguards access to e-journals, e-books, and digital collections. Our unique, trusted process ensures that the content we preserve will remain accessible and usable for researchers, scholars, and students in the future.

Submission Turnaround Time