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Kyu Kwon Cho
Young Hak Kim
Yong Hwan Kim


exercise behavior, fitness, metabolic syndrome, muscle, obesity


Background and objective
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be improved by diet, cessation of smoking, and in particular exercise. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of exercise-related factors such as fitness, exercise habits, muscle, and body fat with MetS.

Data were collected for research purposes from 398 males aged 40–50 years. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body fat percentage were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fitness was evaluated using cardiopulmonary fitness, grip strength, and leg power. Exercise habits included exercise frequency, intensity, and duration. Data were analyzed using the odds ratio (OR), calculated by logistic regression analysis.

There was no significant difference in age between the non-MetS (51.1 years) and the MetS (51.5 years) groups. Differences in dyslipidemia and fitness variables classified as MetS risk factors were significant between groups. The group with the highest cardiopulmonary fitness had an OR of 0.426 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.191–0.948) when compared with the lowest group, while grip strength was not significantly different. Obesity factors such as body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly prevalent. The group with the largest thigh circumference had an OR of 0.299 (95% CI, 0.101–0.881) when compared to the group with the smallest thigh circumference. Calf circumference did not yield significant results. The group with the highest ASM had an OR of 0.346 when compared with the lowest group. Higher exercise frequency and longer duration were associated with a lower prevalence of MetS.

Among physical strength, circumference, muscle mass, and obesity factors, MetS was most affected by obesity factors. Furthermore, higher cardiopulmonary fitness and frequent exercise can be helpful for MetS prevention.


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