Journal of Mens Health <p>The Journal of Men’s Health (JOMH) is a peer-reviewed publication covering all aspects of men’s health across the lifespan. As the official journal the International Society of Men’s Health (ISMH) the Journal publishes cutting-edge advances in a wide range of diseases and conditions, including diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management strategies, and innovative clinical research in gender-based biology to ensure optimal patient care. The Journal addresses disparities in health and life expectancy between men and women; increased risk factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and obesity; higher prevalence of diseases such as heart disease and cancer; and health care in underserved and minority populations.<br><br><br></p> <p><br><br></p> en-US (Scott Bryant) (Kelly Brooks) Thu, 28 Sep 2017 09:22:15 -0400 OJS 60 Effects of 4 Weeks of Horseback Riding on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> There is no report on the effects of horseback riding on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of horseback riding on anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder in children with ADHD.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Subjects comprised a convenience sample of 10 children aged 10-12 years with ADHD and 10 children without ADHD. Horseback riding sessions were performed 2 times (40 minutes/day) per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the horseback riding program, we measured the children’s anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> After participating in the 4-week horseback riding program, anxiety (p = 0.013), depression (p = 0.007), attention (p &lt; 0.001), and learning disorder (p &lt; 0.001) were significantly improved in the ADHD group compared to the control group. However, self-esteem was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.096).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These results indicate that the 4-week horseback riding program used in this study was very effective for significantly improving anxiety, depression, and attention in children with ADHD.</p> Wi-Young So, So-Young Lee, Yoonjung Park, Dong-il Seo Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Relationship of Physical Activity Type, Nutrition, and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents <p>Bone density reaches its peak in the mid-20s, and it manifests as osteoporosis and osteopenia with aging. Bone density is affected by body mass index, muscle mass, nutritional calcium and vitamin D, various lifestyles, physical activity level, and high level of strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in diet and bone density according to physical activity level in growing male and female adolescents. This study involved 646 male and 581 female adolescents using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination in 2009-2011. The measurement of bone density consisted of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and they were classified into low, middle, and high groups at different ages based on total bone mineral density. The Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire by the World Health Organization was used to measure physical activity level, and a survey regarding strength exercise and stretching was conducted. In the nutritional survey, data from a 24h recall were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance and chi-square test were conducted to examine the significance of any differences present. Even though there was no difference among groups in both males and females, there was a significant difference in weight (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference among groups by nutrition intake in female adolescents (p&gt;0.05). In males, the high group showed significantly higher calorie intake (p=0.032), protein (p=0.015), calcium (p=0.043), and phosphorus (p=0.013) compared with the low group according to nutrition intake. In terms of physical activity level, there was significant a difference as the proportion of strength exercise more than 3 times a week was 18.1% and 27.2% in the low and high groups, respectively in males (p=0.046), and was 1.0% and 6.1% respectively in females (p=0.014). The proportion of high-intensity exercise 6-7 times a week also showed a significant difference as the low, middle, and high groups showed 5.1%, 5.5%, and 14.1%, respectively (p&lt;0.001). Among adolescents, bone density of female was affected by strength exercise, and that of males was affected by physical activity level and nutrition, showing a clearer tendency in the males. Particularly, regarding physical activity level, high intensity and strength exercise had more positive effects.</p> Yong Hwan Kim, Yong-Kook Lee, Wi-Young So Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Men's Health Fri, 06 Oct 2017 00:00:00 -0400 The Effect of Occasional Alcohol Drinking on Semen Quality and Sperm Morphology among Young and Healthy Polish Men <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Ethanol (EtOH) is an agent that seems to exert an especially harmful effect on male fertility. The impact of high EtOH intake on fertility was demonstrated in numerous researches, with data suggesting that this effect may have been due to decreased semen quality; however, similar negative effects were not identified among occasional EtOH drinkers. There are currently no recommendations for alcohol consumption for men who plan to have a child other than avoiding high EtOH intake. Thus, studies on the effect of moderate and occasional EtOH drinking on semen quality are needed to develop appropriate recommendations for men planning to have a child in the future. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in semen quality parameters and sperm morphology occur in healthy young men who occasionally exceed the WHO-recommended weekly dose of EtOH but are not alcohol dependent and do not frequently consume high amounts of EtOH.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong> The study sample consisted of 172 young men residing in urban areas. The semen quality and morphology of men who consumed more than 140 g of ethanol (high-risk group, HR, n=44) weekly was compared with that of low-risk group members (LR, n=128) who reported lower alcohol consumption.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The only between-group difference in semen characteristics was the identification of a higher percentage of macrocephalic sperm in the HR group (<em>P</em>=0.011). Alcohol intake was the sole factor influencing the percentage of macrocephalic sperm (b=0.171, <em>P</em>=0.025, multiple linear regression).</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> We concluded that occasional alcohol consumption did not alter fertility but caused the accumulation of macrocephalic sperm potentially containing damaged DNA. Therefore, we recommend that men who plan to father children stop drinking alcohol at least 3 months before engaging in sexual intercourse that may lead to pregnancy.</p> Felicja Lwow, Marek Medraś, Małgorzata Słowińska-Lisowska, Paweł Jóźków, Leszek Szmigiero Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Mon, 16 Oct 2017 14:14:56 -0400 Expression Profiles of Cytochrome P450s Following Swimming Exercise in Aging Rats <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background and Objective</strong></p> <p>Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are the major drug-metabolizing enzymes responsible for the clearance of approximately 75% of all drugs in clinical use. Drug clearance may be reduced with aging, resulting in increased drug toxicity in the elderly. Here, we evaluated changes in CYP expression following exercise in an aging rat model.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into control (<em>n</em>=5), short-term exercise (SE) (<em>n</em>=4), and long-term exercise (LE) (<em>n</em>=7) groups and changes in CYPs and nuclear receptors (NRs) were measured with aging.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p><em>CYP2C22, CYP3A1</em>, and <em>CYP2C11</em> mRNAs were upregulated, whereas <em>CYP26B1</em> was downregulated in the SE and LE groups compared with the control group. Moreover, mRNA levels of the NRs, constitutive androstane receptor, retinoid X receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and pregnane X receptor, were significantly increased in the LE group compared with those in the control group. As an indicator of more long-term changes, protein levels of CYP2C11, CYP2B, CYP1A, CYP2C, and CYP2C22 were significantly upregulated in the LE group compared with the control group. Overall, our data show that CYP and NR expression increased in rats with forced long-term exercise during aging.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Therefore, we propose that regular swimming exercise may increase CYP levels, resulting in enhanced drug clearance and thereby reducing age-related drug toxicity in elderly individuals.</p> Bang sub Lee, Wi-Young So, Sang-Hoon Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Wed, 18 Oct 2017 08:51:15 -0400 The Effect of Taekwondo Coach-Athlete Interaction on Perceived Performance: The Moderating Effect by Two Taekwondo Styles, Gyeorugi and Poomsae <p>This study aimed to provide fundamental knowledge on enhancing Performance of Taekwondo players by validating how the coach-athlete interaction affects perceived performance, and how its moderating effect varies by <em>gyeorugi</em> (sparring) and <em>poomsae</em>. A survey was conducted on 395 Taekwondo players of University located in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Incheon, and Chungnam, who were official members of Korea taekwondo Association as of 2016. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, a type of non-probability sampling. Subsequently, a sample of 382 of 394 respondents, filtering 12 unfaithful ones, was selected for data collection (<em>gyeorugi</em> 180, <em>poomsae</em> 202; male 230, female 152). First, coach-athlete interaction had a statistically positive influence on perceived performance of University Taekwondo players(p&lt;0.05). Second, in the validation of moderating effect, coach-athlete interaction showed a greater impact on perceived performance in a group of <em>gyeorugi </em>players than their <em>poomsae</em> counterparts (<em>gyeorugi</em> 19.6%; <em>poomsae</em> 6.5%). The result from pairwise parameter comparison exceeded critical value (±1.96: 0.05; ±2.58: 0.01), suggesting that moderating effect was statistically significant with 99% confidence level. These results indicated that in Taekwondo training, the coach-player interaction such as instruction on technique, faith, encouragement, passing on know-how was more effective in enhancing Performance of <em>gyeorugi</em> players than <em>poomsae</em> players.</p> Seyong Jang, Wi-Young So Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Mon, 23 Oct 2017 15:29:47 -0400 What is Men's Health? A Definition <p><strong>Target of the study</strong>: Men´s Health is increasingly coming into force within health research, epidemiology, health care organisation, and health policy. Over the past 10-15 years the EU Men´s Health Report and reports within some countries have publicised problems of health in men. A starting point for the study of men´s health is the definition of “Men´s Health”. A group of German experts in the field of men´s health has taken on this task.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A literature review in international and national databases was performed for the years 1990-2014 by selected MeSH terms and for “experts in men´s health”. Further research concerned “grey literature” in Germany, especially health reports and web pages. This was followed by a conference of experts to define “Men´s Health” using a modified Delphi method according to W. Zinn. From the expert group, minimum criteria for a definition of “Men´s Health”, which must comply with the new definition of men´s health, were created and discussed. The final definition was created in the third round of the Delphi method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The international literature review yielded seven definitions of “Men´s Health” in the English literature and five definitions in the German literature including within the “grey” literature. The expert group identified seven minimum criteria and fifteen relevant topics that were needed for a strong definition, of which, by weighting, eight criteria were considered relevant for a new definition. None of the existing definitions could fulfil these eight criteria. Therefore, in the next step of the expert group a new definition “Men´s Health” was elaborated. The definition has reference to the WHO concept of “health” and includes dimensions of health and disease, risk and protective factors that require special prevention and care services for all phases of life. All participants in the expert group agreed on the definition developed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The definition of Men´s Health is a basis for further research and practice to improve men´s health in Germany and other countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Doris Bardehle, Martin Dinges, Alan White Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Tue, 24 Oct 2017 10:09:35 -0400 The Current Issues on Osteoporosis among Male Saudi Arabians <p>Background and Objective: Osteoporosis was reported to be common among Saudi Arabian population. In the last decade there have been no reports related to the male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabian citizens. The objective of this study was to find the hospital-based prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabians.</p> <p>Methodology: This is the retrospective study between January 2014 and December 2016 in which all patients who were referred for DEXA (Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry) scan to the radiology department of the King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar. Patient’s demographic data was collected from the medical records. Patients who were younger than 50 years and those who had a fragility fracture were excluded from the analysis. From the IPAC the readings of the DEXA were collected. Associated diseases of the patients were also extracted from the QuadruMed Data Base. The data was entered in the database and analyzed using SPSS Inc. version 19 and p value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p>Results: Four hundred and fifty five patients had a DEXA scan during the study period. Three hundred and seventy one (81.5%) were ≥50 years. The average was 65.33±9.85 years (Range 50-97). On the basis of Spinal T score, 222 (59.8%) were osteoporotic with the spinal T score of &lt;-3.58±0.88, while with hip T score 120 (32.3%) were osteoporotic with T score of &lt;-3.24±0.59. Thirty-six (9.7%) had a normal DEXA of spine and 74(19.9%) of patients had normal DEXA when Hip was taken into consideration. Patients could be divided into four groups based on their diseases; they were on treatment for Cardiac disease 106 (28.5%), Diabetes mellitus 95 (25.7%), osteoarthritis 141 (38%) and Respiratory Disease 29 (7.8%). Based on the Spinal T score osteoporosis was observed in 61/106 (57.5%) patients with cardiac disease, 62/95 (65.3%) Diabetics, in osteoarthritis 83/141 (58.9%) and 16/29 (55.1%) in patients with respiratory system diseases. Majority of the patients had vitamin D3 analysis and were most of the patients were in the deficiency range. From 222 (59.83%) patients who were diagnosed to have osteoporosis only 108 (48.64%) were on appropriate treatment for osteoporosis.</p> <p>Conclusion: In conclusion this study finds that prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi Arabian males have increased in the last decade, We believe more determined attempts to be encouraged to early screen, and report their observation to come to a consensus about the prevalence of male osteoporosis and implement appropriate measures to limit the further rise in the prevalence of osteoporosis among the male population of Saudi Arabia.</p> Mir Sadat-Ali, Ali W Almomen, Hussain K AlOmar; Sultan A AlAlwan; Abid H Gullenpet, Fawaz M AlAnii Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 Gender Differences in Body Composition, Physical Activity Level, Physical Fitness, and Bone Mineral Density among Elderly Individuals Living Alone Compared to Those Living with Their Spouses <p>Background and Objective: This study aimed to examine the differences in body composition, physical activity level, physical fitness, and bone mineral density (BMD) among elderly individuals who lived alone and those who lived with their spouses.<br>Material and Methods: A total of 136 elderly individuals, older than 65 years (63 males and 73 females) were surveyed according to whether they lived alone or with their spouses, age, and sex. Body mass index and percentage body fat were also measured, as well as 7 days of physical activities of daily life by accelerometer. The physical fitness test consisted of 6 minutes walking for cardiorespiratory fitness and grip strength and leg strength for muscular strength. BMD and T-score were measured by sonography at the calcaneus. Independent t-test was used to examine the group difference according to the living status with spouse by gender.<br>Results: First, in body composition, elderly females who lived alone showed higher percentage body fat compared with elderly females who lived with their spouses (p=0.010). Second, regarding total physical activity, elderly males and females who lived alone showed significantly lower calorie consumption during daily physical activity compared with elderly males and females who lived with their spouses (p&lt;0.05). Particularly, elderly males and females who lived alone showed significantly lower high intensity (p=0.045) and moderate intensity (p=0.015) physical activity time, respectively. Third, regarding fitness, elderly males and females who lived alone showed significantly lower upper and lower limb strength compared with elderly males and females who lived with their spouse (p&lt;0.05), but there was no difference in cardiovascular endurance (p&gt;0.05). Fourth, regarding BMD, only elderly males who lives alone showed significantly lower BMD and T-score (p&lt;0.05). There was no significant difference in BMD and T-score among elderly females who lived alone and those who lived with their spouses (p&gt;0.05).<br>Conclusion: Elderly individuals who lived alone showed lower physical activity levels, strength, and BMD level as well as higher percentage body fat. An exercise and physical activity program for elderly individual who live alone should be developed to improve percent body fat, strength and BMD.</p> Sunga Kong, Wi-Young So Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Fri, 08 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 The Effect of Short-Term Outdoor Taekwondo Training on the Concentration and Mood of Taekwondo Players <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 200%; -ms-word-break: keep-all;"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">This study verified the effect of short-term outdoor taekwondo training on the attention and mood state of taekwondo players. Eighteen taekwondo players were divided into an indoor taekwondo group (n = 9) and an outdoor taekwondo group (n = 9). Concentration, mood state, and subjective exercise intensity were measured initially and after the training intervention. The results showed that first, taekwondo training in the natural environment was effective in improving the concentration of the players, versus the indoor taekwondo training (F = 4.736, p = 0.045). Second, interaction effects were found for the mood states of anger and hostility (F = 19.782, p &lt; 0.001), vigor (F = 36.971, p &lt; 0.001), and fatigue (F = 39.878, p &lt; 0.001). The outdoor taekwondo group showed positive changes, as compared to the indoor taekwondo group. Third, although both groups underwent the same training, the group subjected to outdoor taekwondo training considered the training lower intensity than the indoor taekwondo group (t = 5.245, p &lt; 0.001). The various physical stimuli that one experiences in a natural environment, such as plants, light, sound and air, act as refreshing sensations that have a positive effect on the concentration and mood state of taekwondo players. We suggest that training in a natural environment can help improve taekwondo performance.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Seyong Jang, Wi-Young So Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mens Health Thu, 14 Dec 2017 10:56:35 -0500